Absolute poverty - situation where a population is able to meet only its bare subsistence essentials of food, clothing, and shelter in order to maintain minimum levels of living.
Brain drain - emigration of highly educated and skilled professional and technical manpower from the developing to the developed countries. India is a conspicuous example.
chaebol - are highly centralized Korean firms controlled by a founding patriarch and heirs through a central holding company. A single person at the top exercises authority through all the firms in the group. Different groups tend to specialize in a vertically integrated set of economic activities.
Closed economy - an economy in which there are no foreign trade transactions or any other forms of economic contacts with the rest of the world.
Comparative advantage - a country has a comparative advantage over another if in producing a commodity it can do so at a relatively lower opportunity cost in terms of the foregone alternative commodities that could be produced. Taking two countries, A and B, each producing two commodities, X and Y, Country A is said to have a comparative advantage in the production of X if its absolute advantage margin is greater or its absolute disavantage is less in X than in Y.
division of labor (new international or spatial)- in the most basic sense allocation of tasks among laborers such that each one engages in tasks that he performs most efficiently and this promotes worker specialization and thereby increases overall labor productivity (from Adam Smith’s The Wealth of Nations). In the context of globalization increasingly we may refer to nations or regions, which specialize in tasks for which they have a comparative advantage, based upon the cost of factors of production and especially labor.
economic infrastructure - underlying amount of capital accumulation embodied in roads, railways, and other forms of transport and communications as well as water supplies, financial institutions, electricity, and public services such as health and education.
Economies of scale - economies of growth resulting from the expansion of the scale of productive activity of a firm or industry leading to increases in its output and decreases in the cost of production per unit of output.
Economies of scope - scope economies exist whenever the same investment can support multiple profitable activities less expensively in combination than separately, e.g., when it is less expensive to produce two products together than it would be to produce each one separately) or serve multiple geographic markets in combination.
enabling technologies - the ways in which the integration of the global economy is affected by transportation, communications and production and organizational improvements and innovations
export processing zone (EPZ) - a small area within a national economy which functions to attract export oriented industries by offering them especially favorable investment and trade conditions as compared to the rest of the country. EPZs provide for the importation of goods to be used in the production of exports on a duty free bonded basis. Usually no duties or taxes are associated with import and export of raw materials and finished goods. Within Southeast Asia, Malaysia has made strong gains in development utilizing this mechanism for economic development.
free trade area or zone (FTZ) - a form of economic integration in which there exists free internal trade among member countries but each member is free to levy different external tariffs among non-member nations (e.g. AFTA).
human capital - productive investments embodied in human persons. These include skills, abilities, ideals, health, etc. that result from expenditures on education, on-the-job training programs, and medical care.
Income "in kind" - a household's or firm's income in the form of goods or services instead of in the form of money. Payments in a barter and subsistence economy are mainly "in-kind."
Industrialization - the process of building up a country’s capacity to “process” raw materials and to manufacture goods for consumption or further production informal sector - the part of the urban (and rural) economy of less developed countries characterized by small competitive individual or family firms, petty retail trade and services, labor-intensive methods of doing things, free entry and market-determined factor and product prices. It often provides a major source of urban employment and economic activity and varies considerably in sophistication of operations and growth potential of these.
Industry sector -
institutions - norms, rules of conduct, and generally accepted ways of doing things. Social institutions refer to well defined and formal organizations of society that govern the way society operates—e.g. class systems, educational system
International Monetary Fund (IMF) - an autonomous international institution whose main purpose is to regulate the international monetary exchange system and in particular to control fluctuations in exchange rates of world currencies in a bid to alleviate severe balance of payments problems
ISI - import substitution industrialization is the approach toward industrialization whereby states produce locally goods and services that were previously imported.
EOI - export oriented industrialization means that a state is producing goods for export and engaged in trade as a means of expanding national revenues.
inward looking (trade) policies - policies that stress economic self reliance, including the development of indigenous “appropriate” technology, the imposition of protective tariffs and nontariff barriers to promote import substitution and general discouragement of direct foreign investment
outward looking (trade) policies - policies that encourage free trade, the free movement of capital, workers, enterprises and welcome multinational corporations (MNCs)
labor productivity - the level of output per unit of labor input, usually measured as output per man-hour or man-year
liberalization - the process of opening an economy to market processes with the instruments of deregulation and privatization of enterprises
maquiladoras - foreign owned assembly plants which utilize their location and situation near major markets combined with cheap labor resources. Prime example is the industries found along the Texas-Mexican border.
NICs - newly industrializing countries - usually refers to the Four Asian Tigers: Singapore, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and South Korea which have realized strong progress in economic development over the past decade and a half as a result of their production specialization, restructuring of the respective economies, their locational situations and labor resources as well as their forward planning open economic posture.
NGO - non-governmental organization - independent organizations which attempt to foster development and serve needs of people and communities.
privatization - process of growth of private ownership as a means of production and in contrast to state owned and operated enterprises (SOEs)
product life cycle - growth in sales for a particular product follows a systematic path, from initial introduction onto the market through a series of stages (growth, maturity, decline and obsolescence). This is important because the development path of a product through phases has important implications for the survival of firms. In addition the product cycle model has been used to explain the spatial changes in economic activity.
Private sector - that part of an economy whose activites are under the control and direction of nongovernmental economic units such as households or firms. Each economic united owns its own resources and uses them mainly to maximize its own well being.
Public sector - that portion of an economy whose activities (economic and noneconomic) are under the control and direction of the state. The state owns all resources in this sector and uses them to achieve whatever goals in may have: e.g., to promote the economic welfare of the ruling elite or to maximize the well being of society as a whole.
rentier economy or rentier state - where a country’s sources of income are largely externally derived and are not primarily from domestic taxation
small-scale or cottage industry - an industry whose firms or farms operates with small sized plants, low employment, and hence small output capacity. Economies of scale do not normally apply in these situations. On the other hand such operations tend to use their limited physical, human, and financial capital more efficiently than many large size firms.
structural transformation and/or adjustment - the process of transforming the basic industrial structure of an economy so that the contribution to national income by manufacturing increasingly becomes higher than that of the agricultural sector
subsidy - a payment by the government to producers or distributors in an industry to prevent the decline of that industry (as a result of continuous unprofitable operations) or an increase in the price of its products, or simply to encourage it to hire more labor (as in the case of a wage subsidy). Examples of subsidies are export subsidies to encourage the sale of exports, subsidies on food stuffs or common goods (such as gasoline) to keep down the cost of living especially in urban areas, farm subsidies to encourage expansion of farm production and achieve self reliance in food production.
subsistence economy - an economy in which production is mainly for “own consumption” and the standard of living yields no more than the basic necessities of life-food, shelter and clothing.
sunrise and sunset industries - refer to industries with differing emphases of labor, capital, raw materials, and technology, which are dominant at different stages in the industrialization process. In part the changing structure of industry is influenced by available technology which redefines the nature of jobs performed, skills required and the training and qualifications needed. “Sunset” industries such as paper and pulp, textiles, footwear, and food products are industries which have high raw material inputs, little value added, and are normally associated with the beginning stages of the industrial process where ISI prevails. “Sunrise” industries such as computer and electronics appear as the industrial base undergoes further restructuring, are also often labor intensive but demand somewhat more skilled labor, rely on imported parts, and reflect demand for new technology driven products.
technological progress - increased application of new scientific knowledge in form of inventions and innovations with regard to capital, both physical and human.
tertiary sector - (see Industry sector above) the services and commerce portion of an economy. Examples of services include both consumer (individuals) and producer (firms) services. These services include repair of capital goods (e.g. ships), haircuts, medical care, and transport (e.g. taxis and air cargo—consumer and producer respectively.
TNCs or MNCs - trans-national or multi-national corporations are firms that operate across national boundaries providing and securing labor, capital and other resources from a variety of places and which have become very powerful and important influences in the global economy
trade (as an engine of growth) - free trade has often been described as an “engine of growth” because it encourages countries to specialize in activities in which they have comparative advantages thereby increasing their respective production efficiencies and hence their total outputs of goods and services