Table of Contents

 

Introduction

 

2

Basic Texts and Manuals for the Grape Grower  

           

3

Grape Grower Newsletters                                                                         

5

Grape and Wine Industry Journals                                                 

6

University of Kentucky Cooperative Extension Service Productions  

 

7

 Grapevine Nurseries                                                          

 

8

Vineyard Supply Sources                                                                           

13

Vineyard and Orchard Agricultural Chemical Suppliers              

18

University-Based Viticulture Programs

 

23

Various Viticulture and Winegrower Information Internet Web Sites of Interest

 

24

Organizations and Societies Important to Grape Growers

 

25

Viticultural and Enological Characteristics of Kentucky’s Interspecific Wine Grape Varieties

26

 

 


Introduction

What began several years ago as my quest for knowledge on the subject of growing grapes in Kentucky has slowly grown and evolved into this second, revised edition of The Kentucky Grapevine: Information Sources for Kentucky Grape Growers.  As books, pamphlets, videocassettes, phone numbers, email addresses and internet site listings slowly accumulated, it became increasingly apparent that the information vital to Kentucky grape growers was not to be found in a single, convenient source.  Therefore, I undertook the task of compiling and organizing all of these resources in order to help those of you seeking the best and most practical grape growing information.

This edition of The Kentucky Grapevine has been divided into several sections, containing critical information and vineyard supply sources for both the weekend vineyardist and the commercial grower.  The first section contains a selection of core textbooks, pamphlets, and extension service publications pertinent to growing grapes in Kentucky.  This is followed by several sections containing regularly published newsletters and industry journals, and a special listing of extension service publications available from the University of Kentucky College of Agriculture Cooperative Extension Service.  The subsequent three sections include listings of grapevine nurseries, vineyard supply sources, and vineyard agricultural chemical suppliers.  The last section of this guide has been revised to include “Viticultural and Enological Characteristics of Kentucky’s Interspecific Wine Grape Varieties”, which details the parents of the interspecific grape varieties grown in Kentucky in addition to pertinent information about each variety.  This succinct guide is provided as a supplement to published information on these grape varieties in order to provide Kentucky-specific information important to the grower who is deciding which wine grape variety to plant.

Whether you intend to grow grapes for wine, table, or jelly, and regardless if you are practicing viticulture on a commercial scale, or just have a few vines in the backyard, growing grapes in Kentucky’s climate requires at least a basic understanding of site selection, pruning and trellising, and disease surveillance and control in order to be successful.  Rest assured, however, that once you are armed with the right knowledge, equipment, advice, and resources, grape growing in Kentucky can be an extremely enjoyable and even profitable venture.  It is my sincere hope that this manual serves you well in achieving success in your grape growing endeavors.

Best Wishes,

 

 

 

Chris Nelson

President, Kentucky Vineyard Society

October 23, 1999

 

This text was updated in 2007 by Chris Smigell, John Strang, and Kaan Kurtural of the University of Kentucky.
Basic Texts and Manuals for the Grape Grower

 

Many excellent extension publications and textbooks are available on growing grapes of all varieties.  Start out with some of the basic, economical sources listed toward the beginning of each of the sections here, then if desired, you can progress into the more detailed (and often more expensive) publications appearing toward the end of each section.

Many of the books listed are available new or used at www.amazon.com.

This web site has an extensive list of wine and grape related titles as well:

http://winegrapes.tamu.edu/resources/books.shtml

The University of California bookstore also stocks many of those below:

http://bookstore.ucdavis.edu/Display.cfm?CatID=43&StartRow=21

Viticulture:

·        Growing Grapes in Kentucky1 (University of Kentucky Cooperative Extension Service Publication No. ID-126). G.R. Brown, D.E. Wolfe, J. Strang, T. Jones, R. Bessin, J. Hartman. 1997  (www.ca.uky.edu/agc/pubs/id/id126/id126.htm)

·        Cultural Practices for Commercial Vineyards3. T.D. Jordan, R.M. Pool, T.J. Zabadal, J.P. Tomkins. 1980 ($2.00)

·        Grapes: Production, Management and Marketing (Ohio State University Cooperative Extension Service Bulletin No. 815). Garth Cahoon, Michael Ellis, Roger Williams, Larry Lockshin. 1991 ($7.75 + $2.50 S&H)

·        Growing Grapes in Minnesota. The Minnesota Grape Growers Association. 1991($10.00)

·        A Wine-Grower’s Guide. Philip M. Wagner. 1996. ISBN: 093266492X ($19.95)

·        From Vines to Wines: The Complete Guide to Growing Grapes

and Making Your Own Wine, 3rd edition. Jeff Cox, 1985. Storey Books, ISBN: 1580171052 ($14.95)

·        Growing Wine Grapes. John R. McGrew, Juergen Loenholdt, Thomas J. Zabadal, Arthur C. Hunt, Herman O. Amberg. 1994. G. W. Kent, Inc.; ISBN: 0961907207 ($10.50)

·        The Mid-Atlantic Winegrape Grower’s Guide2. Tony K. Wolf, E. Barclay Poling. 1995 (in process of being revised, 2003) ($20.00)

     The Profitability of Investing in a Small Vineyard and Winery. Paul Dakis,

·        Peter Hayes, Drew Noon, John Whiting. CSIRO, Australia ($20.00)

·        Sunlight into Wine: A Handbook for Winegrape Canopy Management.  Richard Smart, Mike Robinson. 1991. Winetitles, ISBN: 1875130101 ($40.00)  http://www.smartvit.com.au (also sold at Liquor Barn)

·        The Production of Grapes and Wine in Cool Climates. David Jackson, Danny Schuster. 1984. Butterworth-Heinemann; ISBN: 0864760647 ($28.95)

·        Oregon Viticulture. Edward W. Hellman. 2003. Oregon St. Univ. Press; ISBN: 0870715542 ($44.95)

The book serves as a successor to the popular “Oregon Winegrape Growers’ Guide,” offering broader, more in-depth coverage.

·        Small Fruit Crop Management. Gene J. Galletta, David G. Himelrick. 1990. Prentice Hall; ISBN: 0131854550

·        General Viticulture. A.J. Winkler, James A. Cook, W. M. Kliewer, Lloyd A. Lider. 1974 Univ. of Calif. Press; ISBN: 0520025911 ($55.00)

·        Grape Growing5. Robert J. Weaver. 1976. Wiley & Sons, IS

·        BN: 0-471-923249  ($75.00)

 

 

Grape Varietal and General Information:

·        Wine and Juice Grape Varieties for Cool Climates3 (Cornell University Cooperative Extension Information Bulletin 233). Bruce I. Reisch, Robert M. Pool, David V. Peterson, Mary-Howell Martens, Thomas Henick-Kling. 1993 ($5.00) or at (www.nysaes.cornell.edu/hort/faculty/reisch/bulletin/wine/index2.html) Grapes into Wine: The Art of Winemaking in America. Philip M. Wagner. 1994. Alfred A. Knopf, pub. ISBN: 0394731727 ($18.95)

·        Winegrowing in Eastern America: An Illustrated Guide to Viticulture East of the Rockies. Lucie T. Morton. 1985. Cornell Univ. Press; ASIN: 0801412900

·        Vines, Grapes and Wines: the Wine Drinker’s Guide to Grape Varieties. Jancis Robinson. 1986. Mitchell Beazley; ISBN: 1857329996 ($27.95)

·        Jancis Robinson’s Guide to Wine Grapes. 1996. Oxford Univ Pr; ASIN: 0198600984 ($13.95)

·        The Wines of the East: Native American Grapes 6. Hudson Cattell, Lee Stauffer Miller. 1980 ($2.75)

·        The Wines of the East: The Hybrids6. Hudson Cattell, Lee Stauffer Miller. 1978 ($2.75)

·        The Wines of the East: The Vinifera6. Hudson Cattell, Lee Stauffer Miller. 1979 ($2.75)

·        Grape Varieties and Rootstock Varieties. Pierre Galet. Oenoplurimedia. Chaintre, France; 1998 ($135.00)

·        Grape Varieties. Pierre Galet. 2002. Cassell Pub; ISBN: 0304364096

 

 

Grape Disease and Pest Management:

·        Kentucky Commercial Small Fruit and Grape Spray Guide1 (University of Kentucky College of Agriculture Cooperative Extension Service Publication No. ID-94). Published Yearly (Free)

   (www.hort.purdue.edu/hort/ext/sfg/)

·        Midwest Small Fruit Pest Management Handbook 4 (soft cover $10.60, includes S & H)

·        Compendium of Grape Diseases (American Phytopathological Society). Roger C. Pearson, Austin C. Goheen. 1994 ($40.00)

   (www.apsnet.org)

·        Grape Pest Management, 2nd ed.5 (University of California at Davis). 1992($68.00) 

·        A Pocket Guide for Grape IPM Scouting in the North Central and Eastern U.S.

Rufus Isaacs, Annemiek Schilder, Tom Zabadal, Tim Weigle, Joy Landis, 2003 ($13.00) www.ipm.msu.edu/GrapePocket.htm

1 Available through your County Cooperative Extension Service Office

2 Available through: Publications Office, Department of Agricultural Communications, North Carolina State University, Campus Box 7603, Raleigh, NC 27695-7603

3 Available through: Media Services Resource Center, Cornell University, 7  Business and Technology Park, Ithaca, NY 14850; (607) 255-2080

4Available through: UK College of Agriculture, Ag Distribution Center, Coal Pile Rd, Lexington 40546-0229)

5 Available through: ANR Communication Services at 1-800-994-8849 or (510)                

642-2431, or order on line at http://www.ipm.ucdavis.edu/GENERAL/orderpubs.html            

6 Available through: L&H Photojournalism, 620 North Pine Street, Lancaster, PA; (717) 393-0943       

Grape Grower Newsletters:

Newsletters provide an up-to-date, regional, and economical (many are free) source of information.  Many include a bulletin board listing wine and grape schools and conferences, in addition to classified ads offering vineyard equipment and grapevines for sale.

·        Kentucky Fruit Facts (University of Kentucky College of Agriculture Cooperative Extension Service, Dr. John Strang, Ed).            Published Monthly

(Free). Write to: Kentucky Fruit Facts, Research & Education Center,

P.O. Box 469, Princeton, KY 42445

(www.ca.uky.edu/fruitfacts/index.htm)

·        Facts for Fancy Fruit (Purdue University Dept. of Horticulture, Bruce Bordelon, Ed.). Published Monthly (Free) Write to: Bruce Bordelon, Department of Horticulture, Purdue University, 1165 Horticulture Bldg., West Lafayette, IN 47907-1165; (765) 494-1301

  (www.hort.purdue.edu/fff/fff.html)

·        Finger Lakes Vineyard Notes (Cornell University Cooperative Extension, Tim Martinson, Ed).  ($20.00/yr.) Write to: Tim Martinson, Finger Lakes Grape Program, 110 Court Street, Penn Yan, NY 14527-1130; (315) 536-5134

http://flg.cce.cornell.edu/2007%20Vin%20Notes%20Subscription%20out%20of%20area.pdf

 

·        The Maryland Grapevine (Maryland grape Growers Association) $15.00/yr., 1116 E. Deep Run Road, Westminster, MD, 21158, (410) 848-7577

   ( http://marylandwine.com/mgga/general/grapevine.html)

·        Vineyard and Vintage View (Free) Department of Fruit Science, Southwest Missouri State University, Research Campus, Mountain Grove, MO 65711-9252  (http://mtngrv.missouristate.edu/grapenews.htm)

·        Vineyard and Winery Information Series (Viticulture Notes by Tony Wolf and Vintner’s Corner by Bruce Zoecklein) ($10.00/yr) Winchester Agricultural Research and extension Center, 595 Laurel Grove Road, Winchester, VA 22606 (www.ext.vt.edu/news/periodicals/viticulture/04januaryfebruary/04januaryfebruary.html)

·        Grape Notes from the University of California Cooperative Extension, Tulare County

http://cetulare.ucdavis.edu/pub/grapelst.htm

·        Illinois Fruit and Vegetable News, from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

   http://ipm.uiuc.edu/ifvn/

   The Tender Fruit Grapevine, from the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture

·        www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/crops/hort/tender_fruit.html

 

Grape and Wine Industry Journals:

These colorful, information-packed publications are aimed primarily at the commercial grape grower and winery owner, but also provide information of interest to the hobbyist.  Some also list a yearly guide to nurseries, equipment suppliers and other important industry sources.  Others are circulated only to members of their respective societies.

·        Practical Winery and Vineyard. Published bi-monthly. ($31.00/yr.) 15 Grande Paseo, San Rafael, CA 94903-1534; (415) 479-5819

(www.practicalvineyard.com/)

·        Vineyard and Winery Management. Published bi-monthly. ($27.00/yr.) 103 Third St., P.O. Box 231, Watkins Glen, NY 14891-9989; (607) 535-7133 or (800) 535-5670

(www.vwm-online.com)

·        Wines and Vines. Published monthly ($32.50/yr.  Industry news, editorial columns on politics, legal and regulatory opinions, the world wine market, vineyard   management.  Also the Yearly Grape and Wine Industry Buyer’s Guide    $65.00. The Hiaring Company, 1800 Lincoln Ave., San Rafael, CA 94901-1298; (415) 453-9700

(www.winesandvines.com/)

·        Wine East. Published bi-monthly ($20.00/ 1yr., $36.00/ 2yr.) Subscription includes annual Wine East Buyers’ Guide. L&H Photojournalism, 620 North Pine Street, Lancaster, PA 17603; (717) 393-0943

(www.wineeast.com/)

·        Grape Grower Magazine. Published monthly ($19.95/yr., but free for 1st 3 years to commercial growers) 4969 E. Clinton Way, Suite 119, Fresno, CA 93727-1549; (209) 252-7000

(www.business-magazines.com/)

·        American Journal of Enology and Viticulture. Published quarterly by the American Society for Enology and Viticulture. $130.00/yr., includes membership to ASEV. Contact: Secretary-Treasurer, P.O. Box 1855, Davis, CA 95617; (530) 753-3142.

(www.asev.org/)

·        American Wine Society Journal. Published quarterly by the American Wine Society, $36.00/yr., includes membership to AWS. Contact: Angel Nardone,  3006 Latta Road, Rochester, NY 14612-3298(www.americanwinesociety.com/)

·        Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research.  Published three times per year; an international journal that publishes peer-reviewed research results.               

   www.asvo.com.au/ajgwr/

·        Australian & New Zealand Wine Industry Journal.  A bimonthly journal of oenology and viticulture.

www.winetitles.com.au

·        Good Fruit Grower. Published Monthly June-December, and Semi-Monthly January-May, $30.00/yr., $75.00/3 yrs. Washington State Fruit Commission, 105 South 18th Street, Suite 205, Yakima, WA 98901-2149, (509) 575-2315 or (800) 487-9946.

(www.goodfruit.com)

·        Small Fruits Review. Published quarterly, $48.00/year.   Peer-reviewed research results, applicable to the grower, extension agent, and educator.

www.haworthpressinc.com/web/SFR/

·        Wine Business Monthly. Published monthly, Free to qualified requestors (commercial growers and wineries), otherwise $69.00/yr. Wine Business Monthly, 867 West Napa Street, Sonoma, CA 95476, (707) 939-0822, Fax (707) 939-0833

(www.winebusiness.com/)

University of Kentucky  Cooperative Extension Service Productions:

(Available free through your county extension agent)

Some of the most specific, well-written and practical guides for grape growing are available through state and county agricultural extension agencies.  As you can see from the following list, Kentucky is no exception.

The following articles may be found at the Department of Plant Pathology website:  www.ca.uky.edu/agcollege/plantpathology/PPAExten/pppublin.htm#Small%20fruit

·        Black Rot of Grapes (PPA-27)

·        Cane and Leaf Spot “Dead Arm” of Grapes (PPFS-FRS-1)

·        Crown Gall (Pub. PPFS Gen 1)

·        Powdery Mildew (Pub. PPFS Gen-2)

 

All of the following articles may be found at the Department of Horticulture website:

www.uky.edu/Agriculture/HLA/welcome.htm

·        Fruit Facts

   2005 Grape Cost and Return Estimates: Summary and Assumptions
· 2005 Grape Production Budgets - American Hybrid Wine Varieties
· 2005 Grape Production Budgets – European/ Hybrid Wine Varieties

· 2005 Grape Production Budgets - Table Grape Varieties

· Growing Grapes in Kentucky (ID-126, HTML or PDF)

     · Kentucky Winegrape Growers Survey - December, 200

· Site Selection for European (Vinifera) Grapes Based on Kentucky Low    Temperature Weather Data

·        Grape Insects (ENTFACT-208)

·        Black Rot of Grapes (PPA-27)

  Disease and Insect Control Programs for Home Grown Fruit in Kentucky Including Organic Alternatives (ID-21)

·        Video: Pruning Grapes (VHO-0126)

·        Video: Planning for a Commercial Table Grape Operation (VHO-0568)

·        Kentucky Grape Alert – is an e-mail message that provides timely Kentucky disease and insect information during the season.  Contact U.K. Horticulture

personnel Joe Masabni, John Strang, or Chris Smigell to be set up to receive the alerts.

Grower’s Guide to Grapevine Nurseries

One of the single most important decisions facing the new grower is what grape varieties to plant.  This is a highly personal decision, but buying quality vines from a reputable nursery can make the choice much easier.  The following is a comprehensive listing of North American nurseries, including the types of vines which they sell, and how to contact them for more information.

KEY:

A=Native American Varieties

H=Interspecific Hybrid Varieties

V=Vitis vinifera Varieties

S=Seedless Varieties

N=New York (Including Numbered, Experimental) Varieties

 

New York State

Grafted Grapevine Nursery (A, H, V, N)

2399 Wheat Road

Clifton Springs, NY 14432-9312

(315) 462-3288 or (716) 526-6742                             No web site

Fax: (315) 462-5234

 

Double A Vineyards, Inc. (A, H, V, S, N)

10275 Christy Road

Fredonia, NY 14063

(716) 672-8493

Fax: (716) 679-3442                                                  www.Rakgrape.com

email: vine@rakgrape.com

 

Foster/Concord Nurseries, Inc. (A, H, V, S)

10175 Mile Block Road

North Collins, NY 14111-9770

(716) 337-2485 or (800) 223-2211                             www.concordnurseries.com/

Fax: (800) 448-1267

 

Herman J. Weimer Vineyard, Inc. (V, H)

P.O. Box 38, Route 14

Dundee, NY 14837

(607) 243-7971 or (800) 371-7971                              www.wiemer.com/#nursery

Fax: (607) 243-7983                                  

 

Dr. Konstantin D. Frank & Sons (V)

Vinifera Wine Cellars, Ltd.

9749 Middle Road

Hammondsport, NY 14840                                        www.drfrankwines.com

(607) 868-4884 or (800) 320-0735

 

Walter & Hilda Volz Vinifera Vineyard & Nursery (V)

109 Gibson Street                                        

Bath, NY 14810                                                          No   web site

(607) 776-2270

 

Turnbull Nursery, Inc. (A, H, S)

10036 Versailles Plank Road

North Collins, NY 14111

(716) 337-3812

Fax: (716) 337-0318

email: TURNBULL@PRODIGY.NET           http://www.turnbullgardencenter.com/             

 

Miller Nurseries (A, H)

5060 West Lake Road

Canandaigua, NY 14424                                          www.millernurseries.com

(800) 836-9630

 

Congdon and Weller Wholesale Nursery (A,S)

10308 Mile Block Road

North Collins, NY 14111                                            no web site

716-337-0171 800-345-8305

 

 

Canada

Mori Nurseries (H,V)

RR #2

Niagara-On-The-Lake                                             www.morinurseries.net

Ontario LOS 1JO Canada

(905) 468-3217,   468-0822

Fax: (905) 468-0344

 

Euro Nursery & Vineyard, Inc. (H,V)

3197 Culp Road

Jordan, Ontario LOR 1SO Canada

(905) 562-3312                                                        www.euro-nursery.com

Fax: (905) 562-5610

 

Virginia

American Nursery (V, and selected Geisenheim hybrids)

Route 1, Box 87B1

Madison, VA 22727

(703) 948-5064                                                      no web site

Fax: (703) 948-5150

 

Omega Virginia Nursery (V)

Rt. 4, Box 77

Leon, VA 22725                                                     no web site

(703) 547-3703

 

Schloss Tucker Certified Grapevine Nursery (H, V)

38638 Old Wheatland Road

Waterford, VA 20197                                             no web site

(540) 882-3929

 

Missouri

Chaumette Vineyard (A, N)

1838 Kenneth Place

St. Louis, MO 63104                                              www.chaumette.com

(314) 444-1927 or (573) 756-6522

Fax: (314) 444-1775 or (573) 756-6522

email: Johnsonh@daniel-henry.com

 

Stark Brother’s Nursery and Orchard Co. (A, H)

P.O. Box 1800

Louisiana, MO 63353                                             www.starkbros.com

(800) 325-4180

Fax: (324) 754-5290

 

Evergreen Nursery (H, V, N)

17 Southwinds Circle

Suite No. 7                                                              no web site

Washington, MO 63090 

(314) 390-2301

Fax: (314) 390-2332

 

Arkansas

Blossomberry Nursery (A, S)                             no web site

Rt. 2 Box 28F

Clarksville, AR 72830

(501) 754-6489

 

Pense Nursery (A, H, S)

16518 Marie Lane

Mountainburg, AR 72946

Phone/Fax: (501) 369-2494                              www.alcasoft.com/pense

email: ppense@cei.net

 

Post Vineyard and Winery (A, H)

1700 St. Mary’s Mtn Rd                                       www.postfamilie.com

Altus, AR 72821

800-275-8423 (479) 468-2741

 

Boston Mountain Nurseries  (A, H, S)

10340 Turner Bend Dr.

Mulberry AR 72947

479-997-1480                                           www.alcasoft.com/arkansas

email: ArBerryFarm@prodigy.net

 

California

Foundation Plant Material Service (A, V, H, S)

University of California, Davis

Davis, CA 95616                                                  http://fpms.ucdavis.edu/

(916) 752-3590

 

Sonoma Grapevines, Inc. (V)

1919 Dennis Lake

Santa Rosa, CA 95403

(707) 542-5510

Fax: (707) 542-4801                                           www.sonomagrape.com

 

Duarte Nursery, Inc. (V)

1555 Baldwin Road

Hughson, CA 95326                                           www.duartenursery.com

(209) 531-0351

 

California Grapevine Nursery, Inc.

1085 Galleron Road

St. Helena, CA 94574-9790                              www.californiagrapevine.com

(707) 963-5688 or (800) 344-5688

 

Geno’s Nursery (V)

18225-A Road 25

Madera, CA 93637                                           http://www.genosnursery.com/

(559) 674-4752 

 

Sunridge Nursery (V)

441 Vineland Road                                          www.sunridgenurseries.com

Bakersfield, CA 93307

(661) 363-8463

 

Vinifera, Inc. Grapevine Nursery (V)

4288 Bodega Avenue

Petaluma, CA 94952                                        no web site

(707) 773-4557

 

Cal Western Nurseries (V)

16384 Avenue 264

Visalia, CA 93292                                                no web site

559-733-3130

 

Caldwell Nursery (V)

169 Kreuzer Lane

Napa, CA 94559                                              www.caldwellvineyard.com

(707) 255-1294

Fax: (707) 255-5162

 

Novavine Grapevine Nursery

6735 Sonoma Highway

Santa Rosa, CA 95409

(707) 539-5678                                             www.novavine.com

Fax: (707) 539-2819

email: info@novavine.com

 

Ponderosa Nurseries, Inc. (V)

464 S. Mooney Blvd.

Tulare, CA 93274-6101                                 www.ponderosanursery.com

(559) 688-6626 or (888) 810-4250

Fax: (559) 688-3542

 

Madera Nursery (S)

Kendall-Jackson Winery, Ltd.

421 Aviation Blvd.

Santa Rosa, CA 95403

(707) 544-4000 (800) 884-4441

Fax: (707) 544-4013

 

Oregon

King Estate Lorane Grapevines (V, H)

80854 Territorial Road

Eugene, OR 97405                                          www.kingestate.com

(541) 942-9874 or (800) 884-4441

 

Vinifera, Inc. (V)

8505 S.W. Creekside Place

Beaverton, OR 97008-7108                             no web site

(503) 520-6250

Fax: (503) 643-2781

 

Lon J. Rombough (A, H, V)

P.O. Box 365

Aurora, OR 97002                                           www.bunchgrapes.com

(503) 678-1410

email: lonrom@hevanet.com/lonrom

 

Minnesota

Lake Sylvia Vineland Nursery (A, H, Including Elmer Swenson Hybrids)

Rt. 1, Box 149

South Haven, MN 55382                                  no web site

(612) 236-7685

 

Jewell Nurseries (H)

P.O. Box 457                                                    no web site

Lake City, MN 55041

(800) 848-0933 (651) 345-3356

 

Ohio

Carl Remkus Nursery (A, H)

858 Bank Street                                               no web site

Painesville, OH 44077

(216) 354-8817

 

Texas

Grayson County College (Munson Hybrids)

Viticulture and Enology Program

Thomas Volney Munson Memorial Vineyard

6101 Grayson Drive                                         no web site

Denison, TX 75020

(903) 786-4382

 

Womack’s Nursery

Rt. 1, Box 80

De Leon, TX 76444-9660                                    no web site

(817) 893-6497

 

Vineyard Supply Sources

As with all jobs, owning the right equipment is one of the keys to success, especially in commercial ventures.  Many supplies may be purchased locally, while specialized equipment may best found by contacting a vineyard and orchard supply specialist.  Most of the supplies you will need can be purchased from one of the following sources.

General Supplies (pruning equipment, training supplies, backpack and commercial sprayers, trellising supplies, grow tubes, bird control items, harvest lugs, bamboo stakes, safety equipment, nursery and vineyard tools, clothing, vineyard thermometers etc.)

Orchard Valley Supply

1521 Mountainview Dr.

Quakertown PA 18951                                      www.orchardvalleysupply.com

888-755-0098

 

A.M. Leonard, Inc.

241 Fox Drive

PO Box 816                                                       www.amleo.com

Piqua, OH 45356

(800) 543-8955

 

Jim Gonyer Supply (irrigation/plumbing supply)

522 E. Washington

Winchester, Ky

859-744-2043

Griffin Greenhouse & Nursery Supplies

1619 Main Street
Tewksbury, MA 01876
                                    www.griffins.com/

Tel: (978) 851-4346

Fax: (978) 851-0012

 

Forestry Suppliers, Inc.

PO Box 8397

Jackson, MS 39284-8397                               www.Forestry-Suppliers.com

(800) 647-5368

Fax: (800) 543-4203

 

Gentrees Grower Supplies

395 Pisgah Highway                                       no web site

Candler, NC 28715

(704) 665-1514

Trellis Supply Specialty Companies

Jim’s Supply Company, Inc.

(Specialized Trellis Supplies)

3530 Buck Owens Blvd.
PO Box 668

Bakersfield, CA 93302-0668                            www.jimssupply.com

(661) 324-6514 or (800) 423-8016

 

A&P Ag Structures (Rail Steel T-Posts, J-R Clips)

11266 Avenue 264

Visalia, CA 93277

(559) 685-8700                                                www.aandpag.com/

Fax: (559) 685-8622

 

Bluegrass Treated Wood                                no web site

3015 Catnip Hill Rd

Nicholasville Ky

606-887-2474

 

Burke, Parsons & Bowlby (wood posts)

Stanton, Ky                                                     http://www.bpbcorp.com/

800-272-2365

 

Cameron and Cameron, Inc.

(Vineyard Supplies)

Fulton, Ca                                                        http://www.ccivineyard.com/

(800) 546-7706 (707) 546-7706

 

Interstate Fencing Supply

2098 Indian Mound Rd

Mt. Sterling, 40353

859-498-3757                                                  no web site

 

Kiwi Fence Systems, Inc.

(Trellising and Electric Fencing Supplies)

121 Kiwi Road
Waynesburg, PA 15370-8070                         www.kiwifence.com

(724) 627-8158

Fax: (724) 627-9791

 

McArthur Lumber & Post

539 Sour Springs Rd                              http://www.mcarthurlumberandpost.com/

Olympia Ky 40358

606-674-6296

 

Vineyard Systems Manufacturing

8422 Standustrial St                                       no web site

Stanton, CA 90680

(714) 821-7440 or (800) 858-6898

 

American Trellising, Inc.

PO Box 5846                                                  no web site

Napa, CA 94558

(707) 259-5222

Fax: (707) 259-5220

 

Valley Vineyard & Orchard Supply

PO Box 1042 420 N. Sacramento St.            no web site

Woodbridge CA 95258-1042                      

(209) 368-8595 or (800) 600-8944

Vineyard Sprayers

Jerry Holder

Lovers’ Leap Vineyard and Winery

104 Lovers’ Leap Ln

Lawrenceburg, Ky

502-839-1229                                             http://www.loversleapvineyardky.com/

 

UAP-Richter/ John Phillips

1061 Henderson-Ford

Mooresville, IN 46158

phone & fax (317) 831-2559

voice pager (888) 474-6470                          no web site

 

Swihart Sales Co. (Mist Sprayers)

Rt. 3, Box 73

Quinter, KS 67752                                        www.Swihart-Sales.com

(785) 754-3513 or (800) 864-4595)

 

AgTec Crop Sprayers

5720 Smetana Drive

Minnetonka, MN 55343                                www.agtecsprayers.com

(800) 704-4292

 

Flory Industries

P.O. Box 908

4937 Toomes Rd.

Salida, CA 95368                                                http://floryindustries.com

800-662-6677

Fax: (209) 545-4924

 

PBM Supply & MFG., Inc.

324 Meyer St.                                                        www.pbmsprayers.com

Chico, CA 95927

(916) 345-1334 or (800) 688-1334

 

John Bean Sprayers

P.O. Box 1404

LaGrange, GA 30241                                              www.johnbeansprayers.com

(800) 241-2308 or (706) 882-8161

 

Spray-Air USA, Inc.

P.O. Box 37

Grangeville, Idaho 83530                                          www.sprayair.com

(208) 983-2002 or (888) 286-6493

Fax: (208) 983-1103

email: sprayair@camasnet.com

 

Grow Tubes

Pacific Western Container

(Vine Shelters and Vine Protectors)

1535 E. Edinger

Santa Ana, CA

(714) 547-9266 or (800) 241-3513                                  www.pacificwestern.com

Fax: (714) 953-9270

 

Treesentials Company, Inc.

(SupertubeÒ Clipper, Snap N’ Grow, and Trilobite Grow Tubes)

60 E Plato Boulevard
Suite 130
                                                                             www.snapngrow.com

Saint Paul, MN 55107

(800) 634-2843 (651) 681-0011

 

Animal Pest Control (scare devices, netting, traps, deer fencing)

Abco Bird Control

(Super Bird Guard and other items)

Kelseyville, CA                                                                www.birdcontrol.com

(707) 479-3966

 

BirdGard Bird Scare Devices

P.O. Box 1690

601 North Larch Street,                                                    www.birdgard.com

Sisters, Oregon 97759

1-888-332-2328 (541) 549-0205

Fax (541) 549-5286

 

Fickle Hill Fence & Supply

(Polypropylene Deer Control Fence)

Arcata, CA 95521                                                                                       

(888) 633-3623
Fax: (707) 822-0403                              www.northcoastweb.com/deerfence

 

JWB Marketing (Weitech Bird Alarm)

Westwood NJ 07675                              http://www.birdcontrolsupplies.com/

800-555-9634, 201-666-8334

 

Jerry Holder

Lovers’ Leap Vineyard and Winery

104 Lovers’ Leap Ln

Lawrenceburg, Ky

502-839-1229                                             http://www.loversleapvineyardky.com/         

 

Maplehurst Deer, Inc. (Deer Fencing)

P.O. Box 697

Bellville, TX 77418                                         

(979) 865-0111                                 www.texaswildlifeservices.com/staytite.htm

 

Applica, Inc, (bought Weitech)

5980 Miami Lakes Drive
Miami Lakes
                                                  http://www.applicainc.com/
FL 33014

305-362-2611

 

Harvesting and Storage Bins

Carson-Brooks Plastics, Inc.

2120 Auto Centre Drive                                     no web site

Glenora, CA 91740

(909) 592-6272

 

Korvan Industries (Grape Harvesters)

Lynden WA 98264                                                    http://www.korvan.com/

360-354-1500

 

Macro Plastics, Inc.

2250 Huntington Dr.

Fairfield Ca 94533-9732                                      www.macroplastics.com

(707) 437-1200

 

Western Square Industries

1621 N. Broadway                                            www.westernsquare.com

Stockton, CA 95205

(800) 367-7810

 

Michigan Orchard Supply
07078 73 ½ Street
South Haven MI 49090                                    http://www.michiganorchard.com/
(800) 637-6426
(269) 637-1111
Fax: (269) 637-7419

 

For trellis supplies and some vineyard supplies available locally, also try Lowe’s, Home Depot, Tractor Supply Company, Southern States, Ace Hardware, Local Lumber Suppliers and other hardware dealers)

 

Vineyard and Orchard Agricultural Chemical Suppliers

With Kentucky’s diversity of insect and fungus pests, you won’t be the only one anticipating a bountiful harvest from your vineyard.  Protect the fruits of your labors with insecticides and fungicides from one of the suppliers listed here.

Many of these chemical suppliers will ship pesticides if they are not restricted use materials.

For easy-to-read information about how toxic these chemicals are, go to:

http://pmep.cce.cornell.edu/profiles/extoxnet/

The Extension Services of Cornell University and Michigan State University have put together information sheets for many common pesticides.  They provide information on what testing has been done to determine the chemicals’ effects on humans and wildlife, and the fate of these chemicals in the environment.

You can also find complete pesticide labels, and Material Safety Data Sheets at:

http://www.cdms.net/pfa/LUpdateMsg.asp

Go to this web site for a table showing the properties (potential for resistance development, systemic/contact activity, et c.) of grape fungicides:

http://axp.ipm.ucdavis.edu/PMG/selectnewpest.grapes.html

 

Supplier

Deliver Less Than Case Qty?

Sales Made To

Agriliance LLC (Spencer Searcy)

P.O. Box 119

5018 Hwy 41N

Springfield, TN 37172

615-384-2573

Sells less than case

Growers

Agri-Chem, Inc.

1301 US Hwy 62 West

Princeton, KY 42445

(502) 365-7232

Yes-must be container sized qtys

Growers

Agri-Chem, Inc.

1106 West 15th Street

Hopkinsville, KY 42240
(270) 886-0141

?

Growers

Agri-Chem, Inc.

Highway 848 West

Trenton, KY 42286
(270) 885-6280

?

Growers

Akridge Farm Supply

724 Fairview Ave

Eddyville, KY

(502) 388-2910

no

Growers

Akridge Farm Supply

P.O. Box 175

Fredonia, KY 42411

(502) 545-3332

Some

Retailers,

Growers

Big Rivers Agri-Supply

(Miles Farm Supply)

2760 Keller Rd

Owensboro, KY 42301

(502) 926-8737

No

Retailers

Growers

 

Clements Ag Supply

1223 Lebanon Rd

Springfield, Ky

(859) 336-3112

Yes

Growers

 


 

Supplier

Deliver Less Than Case Qty?

Sales Made To

Fruit Belt Service

Formerly TERRA

200 Jamestown Rd

Cobden, IL 62920

(618) 893-4852

No

Retailers,

Growers

Otis Bryant & Son Inc

512 E Maple St

Caneyville, Ky

(270) 879-3221

Yes

Growers

 

Pro Source

Formerly CORY/TERRA

8104 Woodland Dr

Indianapolis, IN 46278

(800) 672-4273

Yes

Wholesale,

Retailers,

Growers

UAP Mid-South

574 Horton Court

Lexington, KY 40511

(606) 254-3811

Yes

Wholesale,

Growers

UAP-Richter/ John Phillips

1061 Henderson-Ford

Mooresville, IN 46158

phone & fax (317) 831-2559

voice pager (888) 474-6470

Will deliver

 if possible

(ship UPS)

Wholesale,

Retailers,

Growers

 

Ryan’s Agri & Pest Supplies

1130 West High Street

Lexington, KY 40508

(859) 233-0057

Yes

Wholesale, Retailers,

Growers

Robinson Milling Co

P.O. Box 357

Somerset, KY 42502

(606) 678-4106, or 4107

No

Growers

Royster Clark

Highway 431

South Utica, KY 42376

(270) 733-4028

?

Retailers,

Growers

Royster Clark Retail

315 W Martin Luther King Dr

Union City, TN 38281

800-238-7244

No

Wholesale

 

Salem Fruit Growers Coop Assoc

12093 Lisbon Rd

P.O. Box 3

Greenford, OH 44422

(800) 423-3609

Not to Ky

Retailers,

Growers

 

Supplier

Deliver Less Than Case Qty?

Sales Made To

Southern States Cooperatives (Locations statewide-check local listings)

?

Growers

Warner Fertilizer and Chemical

Box 188

East Bernstadt, KY 40729

(606) 843-6163

No

Retailers,

Growers

Warner Fertilizer and Chemical

P.O. Box 796

Somerset, KY 42502

(606) 679-8484

Yes

Retailers,

Growers

Warner Fertilizer and Chemical

Rte. 5, P.O. Box 5074

Albany, KY 42602

(606) 387-6415

Yes

Retailers,

Growers

Warner Fertilizer and Chemical

P.O. Box 30

Russell Springs, KY 42642

(502) 866-5319

Yes

Retailers,

Growers

Warner Fertilizer and Chemical

P.O. Box 274

Columbia, KY 42728

(502) 384-5042

Yes

Retailers,

Growers

Warner Fertilizer and Chemical

P.O. Box 108

Nancy, KY 42544

(606) 636-6241

Yes

Retailers,

Growers


 

Supplier

Deliver Less Than Case Qty?

Sales Made To

Warner Fertilizer and Chemical

P.O. Box 1100

Liberty, KY 42539

(606) 787-2215

Yes

Retailers,

Growers

Warner Fertilizer and Chemical

P.O. Box 441

Stanford, KY 40484

606-365-9917

Yes

Retailers,

Growers

Warner Fertilizer and Chemical

P.O. Box 215

Thomkinsville, KY 42167

(502) 487-5161

Yes

Retailers,

Growers

Warner Fertilizer and Chemical

P.O. Box 87

Campbellsville, KY 42718

(502) 465-6387

Yes

Retailers,

Growers

Warner Fertilizer and Chemical P.O. Box 117

Monticello, KY 42633

(606) 348-8447

Yes

Retailers,

Growers

Valley Fertilizer

P.O. Box 180

Edmonton, KY 42129

(502) 432-2727

Yes

Retailers,

Growers


University-Based Viticulture Programs

University of Kentucky

College of Agriculture Home Site

http://www.uky.edu/Ag/Horticulture/comfruit.html#grapes

Kentucky Cooperative Extension County Offices/ Agents Listing

www.ca.uky.edu/county/

Kentucky State University

http://www.kysu.edu/land_grant

Cornell University

Cornell Fruit Resources-grapes

http://www.fruit.cornell.edu/grapes.html

The Grape Pages, by Dr. Robert Pool

www.nysaes.cornell.edu/hort/faculty/pool/GrapePagesIndex.html

University of California, Davis

Department of Viticulture and Enology Cooperative Extension

http://wineserver.ucdavis.edu/

California State University, Fresno - Viticulture and Enology Research Center

www.atinet.org/cati/verc/

University of California Cooperative Extension, Tulare County

Grape Extension Publications

http://cetulare.ucdavis.edu/pubgrape/pubgrape.htm

Purdue University Agricultural Extension Fruit and Vegetable Connection

www.hort.purdue.edu/fruitveg/fruit/grapes.shtml

Southwest Missouri State University Fruit Experiment Station at Mountain Grove

            http://mtngrv.missouristate.edu/dept.htm

University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

http://w3.aces.uiuc.edu/NRES/faculty/Skirvin/cfar/index.htm

Washington State University Wine and Grape Program

http://winegrapes.wsu.edu/

University of Minnesota

http://fruit.coafes.umn.edu/grape/index.htm

Various Viticulture and Winegrower Information Internet Web Sites of Interest

 

Winesearch-online.com – a good source for a wide range of information about                 wine and wine making

http://www.winesearch-online.com/categories/Categories.cgi/regions/usa

 

The Super Gigantic WWW Winegrape Glossary, by Anthony Hawkins

http://www.wineloverspage.com/hawkins/

Northwest Berry and Grape Information Net

http://www.osu.orst.edu/dept/infonet/

Grape Growing in North Carolina

http://www.agr.state.nc.us/markets/commodit/horticul/index.htm

http://www.ncwine.org

The Maryland Grape Growers Home Site

http://www.marylandwine.com/mgga/growing/cvem/03.html

Washington Association of Winegrape Growers

http://www.wawgg.org/

Smart Viticulture, Home site of Dr. Richard Smart

http://www.smartvit.com.au/

 

The USDA National Plant Germplasm System web site has a good introduction to origins and taxonomy of grapevines

            http://www.ars-grin.gov/npgs/cgc_reports/grapecgc2001.htm

Climatologic Information Sites

The Weather Channel Home site

http://www.weather.com/

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Online Climatic Data

http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/ol/climate/climatedata.html

University of Kentucky Agricultural Weather Information

http://wwwagwx.ca.uky.edu

USDA Agricultural Hardiness Zones

http://www.usna.usda.gov/Hardzone/ushzmap.html

Grape Disease Information Sites

University of Kentucky Plant Pathology Department-Extension

www.ca.uky.edu/agcollege/plantpathology/PPAExten/ppaext.html

Kentucky Pest News -  a newsletter providing timely information on anticipated and occurring diseases, insects, and pesticide information in Kentucky.

www.ca.uky.edu/agcollege/plantpathology/PPAExten/kpnindex.htm

University of California Grape Pest Management Guidelines

http://axp.ipm.ucdavis.edu/PMG/selectnewpest.grapes.html

Michigan State University Fruit Crop Advisory Team Alert Newsletters

http://www.msue.msu.edu/ipm/fruitCAT.htm

Penn State Department of Plant Pathology – Compost in Vineyards

http://fpath.cas.psu.edu/

Washington State University Tree Fruit Research and Extension Center Fruit Pathology Site

http://fruit.wsu.edu/Diseases/grapealert.html

American Phytopathological Society Plant Pathology Site

http://www.apsnet.org

Organizations and Societies Important to Grape Growers

Kentucky Vineyard Society Home Page

http://www.kyvineyardsociety.org

The Indiana Winegrape Council Home Page

            http://www.indianawines.org/iwgc/

Lodi-Woodbridge Winegrape Commission

www.lodiwine.com/

California Family Wineries

http://familywinemakers.org/

Washington Wine Commission

www.washingtonwine.org

Association of Maryland Wineries

http://marylandwine.com

Missouri Wineries Homepage

http://www.missouriwine.org/

Wine On The Net Guide to New York Wineries

http://www.travelenvoy.com/wine/newyork.htm

Pennsylvania Wineries

http://www.pennsylvaniawine.com/

Virginia Wine Country

            http://www.virginiawines.org/

American Wine Society

http://www.americanwinesociety.com/

 

 

 

 

Viticultural and Enological Characteristics of Kentucky’s

 Interspecific Winegrape Varieties

Due to the lack of Kentucky field data for some new wine grapes, approach planting them with caution.  The major challenge in growing grapes is winter injury, and it is likely to occur during a vine’s lifetime.  The nature and extent of injury is not entirely  predictable, due to the complex interaction between variety, site, and climate.

Other considerations when choosing varieties are the market, disease susceptibility, ripening date, yield potential, growth habit, and cultural requirements. 

White Winegrape Varieties

Seyval blanc:  Seyve-Villard 5276,  S.5656 X S.4986 (Rayon D’Or)

Positive Characteristics

Moderate to good vigor; foliage relatively disease resistant; good cold hardiness (although dependent on crop loading), reliable, heavy producer; excellent crop after spring frost; excellent quality, versatile, white wine grape with vinous character; good winery demand

Negative Characteristics

Early bud break; requires shoot and cluster thinning; tends to over-crop, tight clusters susceptible to Botrytis bunch rot; susceptible to powdery mildew fertilization and/or grafting important to maintain vigor

Vidal blanc:  Vidal 256,  S.4986 (Rayon D’Or) X Ugni blanc (Trebbiano)

Positive Characteristics

Good vigor; attractive and healthy foliage; moderate cold hardiness; reliable moderately heavy producer; very late bud break so almost never affected by late spring frosts; excellent quality, versatile, white wine grape producing wines with floral and fruity characteristics; good winery demand

Negative Characteristics

Foliage susceptible to phomopsis, downy and powdery mildews; also susceptible to soil-borne tobacco and tomato ring spot viruses so should be grafted for best vigor and health; requires cluster thinning

Vignoles:  Ravat 51,  S.6905 X Pinot de Corton (Pinot Noir)

Positive Characteristics

Excellent cold hardiness; late bud break; excellent quality white wine grape, especially well-suited to wine production, yielding wines with tropical fruit and floral tones; high winery demand

Negative Characteristics

Vines generally of low vigor; foliage susceptible to phomopsis, black rot, downy and powdery mildews; clusters small, tight and sparse so yield/acre is low and clusters are very susceptible to Botrytis; not as versatile in the winery due to very high titratable acids at desirable harvest Brix levels; needs to hang on the vine and clusters need sunlight exposure for good fruit composition

Traminette:  NY 65.533.13,  J.S. 23416 X Gewurtztraminer

Positive Characteristics

Excellent vigor and overall disease resistance; good cold hardiness; late bud break; good producer not requiring cluster thinning; excellent quality white wine indistinguishable from the unique, spicy wines made from Gewürztraminer; very high winery demand

Negative Characteristics

Unproven in Kentucky; uncertain market niche; good reception in Chicago area and metro-east in St. Louis; high vigor may be a problem on fertile soils; susceptibility to Phylloxera like Chardonel (may need to be grafted to resistant rootstocks)

Chardonel:  NY 33403/G.W. 9,  S.V. 5276 (Seyval blanc) X Chardonnay

Positive Characteristics

Good vigor; very vigorous on fertile soils; vigor depends on previous year’s crop load and nutrition management; good cold hardiness; cluster thinning not necessary in most years; clusters less susceptible to Botrytis than Seyval parent;  good balance of TA, pH, and Brix for making premium dry white wines; name similarity to Chardonnay helpful in marketing variety to public; very high winery demand

Negative Characteristics

Early bud break; foliage may be susceptible to powdery and downy mildews; moderate yields compared to Seyval parent; recent reports of severe root borer damage in Virginia and Phylloxera damage to own-rooted vines in Virginia and Indiana, so grafting is now recommended; even with grafting, leaf form of Phylloxera occurs

Cayuga White:  NY 33403/G.W. 3,  S.V. 5276 (Seyval blanc) X Schuyler

Positive Characteristics

Vigorous; disease-resistant; highly productive of fruit which hangs well and resists rot; good cold hardiness; versatile wine grape suited to several different wine styles; variable winery demand

Negative Characteristics

Early bud break; definite window of desirable harvest time for still wine production; overripe fruit develops strong “hybrid” and native American grape aromas and flavors; excessive vigor in warm and fertile sites;

Villard blanc:  Seyve-Villard 12375,  S.6468 X S.6905

Positive Characteristics

Vigorous, productive; fruit clusters large, loose, very attractive and flavorful

Negative Characteristics

Foliage susceptible to powdery and downy mildews; only fair winter hardiness; requires long growing season to fully ripen fruit; wines high in iron content and thus may be difficult to clarify; wine quality average; limited winery demand

Others: Melody, Horizon, Rayon D’Or, Aurore, Ravat 6, Ravat 34, Verdelet

 

Red Winegrape Varieties

Chambourcin:  Johannes Seyve 26205,  ? S.7053 (Chancellor) X S.V.12417

Positive Characteristics

Moderate to good vigor; own-rooted; foliage relatively disease resistant; moderate cold hardiness; reliable, heavy producer; good quality, dry wines with excellent color; more tannin and body than other red interspecific winegrape varieties (if crop load managed properly); very high winery demand

Negative Characteristics

Requires cluster thinning after fruit set; if pruned too heavy requires non-count shoot thinning; tends to over-crop; ripens very late in season with red vinifera varieties

Chancellor:  Seibel 7053,  S.880 X S.5163

Positive Characteristics

Good vigor; own-rooted; highly productive; excellent cold hardiness; good quality, versatile, red wine grape; mid-season ripening; good winery demand

Negative Characteristics

Early bud break (with Seyval); requires aggressive shoot and cluster thinning; foliage highly susceptible to powdery and downy mildews, and fruit susceptible to downy mildew

Norton/Cynthiana:  Norton’s Virginia, Norton’s Seedling    Vitis aestivalis

Positive Characteristics

Vigorous, healthy, and disease-resistant foliage and fruit so easy to grow with few sprays; excellent cold hardiness; reliable producer; produces dry, red wines with full body and varietal character which have been shown to age well; very high winery demand

Negative Characteristics

Expansive foliage must be adequately trellised (Geneva Double Curtain system recommended) and shoot-positioned; clusters relatively small so yields low; soil potassium and pH must be managed for good fruit composition; must has unusual combination of high pH and high TA, so requires creative and careful cellar practices; late maturing

Marechal Foch:  Kuhlmann 188.2,  M. 101-14 X Goldriesling

Positive Characteristics

Good vigor and general disease resistance so easy to grow; excellent cold hardiness; early season ripening lending itself to production of good Nouveau-type red wines; variable winery demand

Negative Characteristics

Very early bud break; small clusters so low yields unless multiple canes retained at pruning; early ripening and small black berries make Foch especially attractive to birds; total acidity and pH are problems in warmer climates

Leon Millot:  Kuhlmann 194.2,  M. 101-14 X Goldriesling

Positive Characteristics

Similar to Foch; where the two are grown side-by-side, Leon Millot tends to be slightly more vigorous, productive, and later ripening than Marechal Foch

Negative Characteristics

Same as those of Marechal Foch

 

De Chaunac:  Seibel 9549,  ? S.793 X S.5163

Positive Characteristics

Vigorous vine; no serious foliar disease susceptibility; heavy producer with numerous large clusters; good cold hardiness

Negative Characteristics

Requires aggressive shoot and cluster thinning; susceptible to soil-borne tobacco and tomato ring spot viruses, so should be grafted; a red wine that tends to lack color, body and tannin; limited winery demand

Baco noir:  Baco 1,  Vitis riparia X Folle Blanche

Positive Characteristics

Extremely vigorous and spreading variety with large attractive leaves; foliage generally disease-resistant

Negative Characteristics

Very early bud break; small clusters of small black berries ripen early; yields are low and fruit is appealing to birds;  strong vigor difficult to adequately control, which may lead to fruit shading and susceptibility to winter injury; vines susceptible to soil-borne tobacco and tomato ring spot viruses; wines deeply colored but generally very highly acidic and low in tannins and body; limited winery demand

Villard noir:  Seyve-Villard 18315,  S.6905 X S.7053 (Chancellor)

Positive Characteristics

Foliage relatively disease-resistant except for susceptibility to powdery mildew; produces fair to good dry, red wine when grown on sites with long growing season

Negative Characteristics

Highly productive so requires cluster thinning (berry compensation with cluster thinning); requires long growing season to adequately ripen fruit; only moderate winter hardiness; often requires grafting to induce adequate vigor; limited winery demand

Frontenac:  a lot of demand in Illinois and is used to make port style wines

Others: Chelois, Cascade, Rougeon, Colobel, Vincent, Rosette