University of Kentucky College of Agriculture


Advancing the field in
Community and Leadership


Community and organizational development

Garkovich, L. 2011 A historical view of community development. Chapter 2, pp. 11-34. In J. D. Robinson and G.P. Green, Eds. Introduction to Community Development: Theory, Practice, and Service-Learning, Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, CA

Garkovich, Lori, Kimberly Brown, and Julie N. Zimmerman. 2009.“We’re not horsing around” Conceptualizing the Kentucky Horse Industry as an Economic Cluster.” Community Development: Journal of the Community Development Society, Vol. 39, No. 3: 93-113.

Garkovich, L. 2012.  Building solidarity and agency through a participatory visioning process. Chapter 7, pp. 113-134. IN: N. Walzer and G. Hamm, eds. Community Visioning Programs: Processes and Outcomes. Routledge, NY.

Alison Davis (PI), Rick Maurer and Lori Garkovich (co-PIs). Ready Communities Pilot and Program Evaluation. USDA/NIFA Smith Lever Special Needs Grant. $65,536, 9/12-9/13.   


Community communication

Community Communication research centers on the roles of communications in community process and outcomes with special emphasis on the effects of digital communication technologies. Current projects included but not limited to: 1) citizen journalism practice for social capital formation; 2) community-based communication campaigns for public health improvement. For example, the Non-Profit Awareness Project (NAP) investigates how citizen journalism can contribute to a public promotion campaign focused on non-profit organizations. It is a novel approach to adopt the citizen journalism practice as one of campaign strategies and has great potential to be applied to a variety of community issues and increase civic engagement as well as public awareness. We also examine the social influence of the new media technology on communication campaigns that aim to enhance public awareness and civic engagement. Currently, we are investigating the roles of online social media for youth anti-smoking campaign and the potential of citizen journalism as a new communication campaign strategy. We have initiated and been leading the Youth Anti-Smoking Project (YAP), which examines how social media can be used for an anti-smoking campaign targeting youth in Kentucky. Furthermore, we are conducting a new youth anti-smoking project in rural counties of Kentucky to test and expand the initial findings of YAP in more geographically defined community settings.

Recent Publications (Selected)

 Nah, S., & Saxton, G. (2013). Modeling the Adoption and Use of Social Media by Nonprofit Organizations. New Media & Society, 15(2), 294-313

Namkoong, K., McLaughlin, B., Yoo, W. H., Hull, S., Shah, D. V., Kim, S. C., Moon, T. J., Johnson, C., Hawkins, R. P., McTavish, F. M., & Gustafson, D. H. (2013). “The effects of expression on perceived bonding: How computer mediated social support shapes cancer patients’ coping strategies.” Journal of National Cancer Institute Monograph, 47, 169-174.

Namkoong, K., Fung, T. K., & Scheufele, D. A. (2012). “The politics of emotion: Voter emotions, news media use and participation during the 2004 U.S. presidential election.” Mass Communication and Society, 15(1), 25-45.

Kropczynski, J. & Nah, S. (2011). Virtually networked housing movement: Hyperlink network structure of housing social movement organizations. New Media and Society, 13(5), 689-703.

Nah, S. (2010). A theoretical and analytical framework toward networked communities: A case of the electronic community information commons. Javnost – The Public, 17(1), 23-36.

Nah, S. (2010). Media publicity and civil society: Nonprofit organizations, local newspapers, and the Internet in a Midwestern community. Mass Communication and Society, 13(1), 1-27  

Conference Papers (Selected)

Nah, S., Namkoong, K., Record, R., & Van Stee, S. K. (2013). Citizen journalism and civic participation: Theory of reasoned action and its mediating effects. Poster presented at the annual meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (Political Communication Interest Group), Washington DC, August 8-11.

Nah, S., Namkoong, K., Van Stee, S. K., & Record, R. (2013). Making journalism work by citizens: Unveiling the effects of citizen journalism on social capital. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (Civic and Citizen Journalism Interest Group), Washington DC, August 8-11.

Nah, S., Namkoong, K., Van Stee, S. K., & Record, R. (2013). Citizens as opinion leaders: Exploring the effects of citizen journalism on opinion leadership. Poster presented at the annual meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (Mass Communication and Society Division), Washington DC, August 8-11.

Namkoong, K., Nah, S., Record, R., & Van Stee, S. K. (2013). Modeling a participatory campaign communication: Communication mediation and anti-smoking behavioral intention. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (Communication Theory and Methodology Division), Washington DC, August 8-11.

Namkoong, K., Nah, S., Van Stee, S. K., & Record, R. (2014). Persuasive Intentions for anti-smoking behaviors: Moderating roles of social capital in a social media campaign. Paper submitted for presentation at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association (Health Communication Division), Seattle WA, May 22-26.

Namkoong, K., Shah, D. V., & Gustafson, D. H. (2013). Social connections in an online cancer community: The effects of individual-level of social capital on psychological health benefits. Paper accepted for presentation at the annual meeting of the National Communication Association (Health Communication Division), Washington DC, November 21-24.

Namkoong, K., Shah, D. V., & Gustafson, D. H. (2013). Connecting cancer patients online: Communication networks in a computer-mediated social support group. Paper accepted for presentation at the annual meeting of the National Communication Association (Human Communication Division), Washington DC, November 21-24.


Agricultural Education


The agricultural education program prepares graduates for positions as agriculture teachers at the secondary and community college level, as county extension agents and as trainers in the agricultural industry. Completion of the B.S. in Agricultural Education leads to teacher licensure in Agricultural Education, grades 5-12. Careers such as these require a wide knowledge of agricultural subject matter and the ability to communicate that information effectively to others. Students in the agricultural education program experience teacher training in a variety of context with opportunities to showcase their skill sets domestically and internationally.



A high demand exists for highly qualified teachers and extension agents that are diverse in their content knowledge of agriculture along with teacher preparatory skills. Across the nation, including Kentucky, position announcements are going unfilled because the supply cannot keep up with the demand. In addition, the training industry is a $124 billion market in the US alone. Agriculture industries are eagerly seeking graduates with proficient skills in teacher preparation with a deep understanding of agriculture content.

The groups that need agricultural information are extremely diverse, as are the settings in which this information is provided. Regardless of whether information is provided in a formal classroom setting or to an individual in an agricultural setting, the focus is on providing service to the agricultural community in the form of accurate and up-to-date information about agriculture.



WE GROW: “Teacher Leaders”, “Agricultural Educators”, “Scholarly Teachers”, & “Creative Communicators”



Vincent, S. K., Kirby, A. T.*, Faulkner, P. E., & Deeds, J. P. (2014). The Evaluation of Multicultural Teaching Concerns among Pre-service Teachers in the South. Journal of Agricultural Education, 55(1). 152-166. doi: 10.5032/jae.2014.01152 

Hains, B. J., Tubbs, J.*, & Vincent, S. K. (2013). Embracing alter-identities: Socio-Cultural development for graduate education. Journal of Agricultural Education, 54(3) doi: 10.5032/jae.2013.03209  

Vincent, S. K., Killingsworth, J. L., & Torres, R. M. (2012). Multicultural teaching concerns: A comparison between disciplines at the secondary preservice level. Journal of Agricultural Education, 53(4), 171-186. doi:10.5032/jae.2012.04171 

Vincent, S. K., Ball, A. L., & Anderson II, A. C. (2012). College major choice for students of color: Toward a Model of recruitment for the agricultural education profession.  Journal of Agricultural Education, 53(4), 187-200. doi: 10.5032/jae.2012.04187



Community-based Education

The concepts community education, community-based education, and community learning and development are defined differently amongst professional disciplines. Faculty within the department often define these concepts in the following way:

Community education: encompasses all approaches to learning and development within a community outside the formal education system.

Community-based Education: Community-based education differs slightly from community education in that it uses the unique aspects of the local communities as the contextual venue or base for learning.

      -  Learning is rooted in what is local—the unique history, environment, culture, etc. of a particular  community

      -   Encourages learners to develop a “sense of place”

Community learning and development: the purpose is to develop the capacity of individuals and groups of all ages develop capacity and solidarity through their actions, while improving their quality of life. Central to this is their ability to participate in democratic processes. Community learning & development is often a collaborative approach between community members and internal/external supportive resources and generally focuses on community issues.

Departmental faculty research these educational processes in several community contexts. Examples are below:

Selected Refereed Journal Articles:

Avery, L. & Hains, B. J. (accepted and forthcoming). Oral traditions: A contextual framework for complex science concepts. Cultural Studies of Science Education

Hains, B. J., *Tubbs, J. & Vincent, S. K. (2013). Embracing alter-identities: Socio-cultural

development for graduate education. Journal of Agricultural Education, 54(3), 209-223. doi. 10.5032/jae.2013.03209

Hains, B. J., Hustedde, R. & Ricketts, K. G. (2013). 21st century crofting: Strengths and opportunities for community development. Journal of Agriculture, Food Systems, and Community Development, 3(3), 47-60. doi. 10.5304/jafscd.2013.033.002

 Selected Conference Proceedings:

Hains, B. J., Knobloch, N. A, & Hains, D. R. (2014). Emotional Regulation and Community Development: Applications for Developers and their Communities.” International Association for Community Development Conference. Glasgow, Scotland.

2012 Ready Community Training manual. Southern Rural Development Center in partnership with FEMA. Lori Garkovich one of 6 co-authors.

Rural/urban location

Zimmerman, Julie N., Sunny (Seonok) Ham and Sarah M. Frank*. 2008. “Does it or Doesn’t it? Geographic Differences and the Costs of Living.” Rural Sociology. 73(3):463-486.

Zimmerman, Julie N. 2008. Voices from the Past, Lessons for the Future: Learning from the History of Sociology in Government.” Equal Opportunities International (Now: Equality Diversity and Inclusion – An International Journal). 27(2):132-147.

Zimmerman, Julie N. 2010. Review of Sociology in America: A History edited by Craig Calhoun and Diverse Histories of American Sociology edited by Anthony J. Blasi. Rural Sociology 75(1):174-176.

Zimmerman, Julie N. 2011. “A Long and Winding Road: Assessing The Rural Sociologist’s Past in Order to Inform its Future.”  Rural Sociological Society (RSS).

Opening Windows onto Hidden Lives: Women, Country Life, and Early Rural Sociological Research. Zimmerman, Julie N. and Olaf F. Larson. Rural Sociological Society. Rural Studies Series. Penn State University Press: University Park, PA.  December, 2010.  Nominated: Distinguished Scholarly Publication Award. American Sociological Association History of Sociology Section. 2013

Zimmerman, Julie N. 2012. “ Of Technicalities and Actualities: When did the RSS Begin and its First President Actually Serve?.”  The Rural Sociologist. 32(3):28-29.

Zimmerman, Julie N. 2012. “What was happening when RSS began?” and “What Was Happening At the Fiftieth RSS Anniversary?”  The Rural Sociologist. 32(3):10-14

Zimmerman, Julie N. 2012. “The American Sociological Society’s Section on Rural Sociology,” “Establishing the Rural Sociological Society,” “Creating the Journal: Rural Sociology,” “Congress Strikes Again: The Era of the ‘Big Chill,’ ” “Organizing the 1st World Congress of Rural Sociology: The Beginnings of the International Rural Sociological Association.” 5 Volumes with research-based introduction and original documents.  Selected Documents in the History of the Rural Sociological Society.  July 2012.

Zimmerman, Julie N. “Neuter or Nurture? Meta-Narrative and Sociology’s Roots in Public Sociology.”

Zimmerman, Julie N. “A Rather Spasmodic Attempt? The Rural Organization Service and the Entry of Social Science into the U.S. Department of Agriculture.”

Zimmerman, Julie N. Oral History Project. Rural Sociological Society. The RSS Oral History Project is  ongoing research documenting and assessing the history of Rural Sociology and the Rural Sociological Society (RSS).  2010-present.

Social inequality/poverty

Hirschl, Tom and Julie N. Zimmerman. 2008. “Welfare.” Pp. 1082-1085  Gary Goreham (ed.) Encyclopedia of Rural America: The Land and People Grey House Publishing: Millerton, NY.

Zimmerman, Julie N. 2008. Book Review: Welfare Reform in Persistent Rural Poverty: Dreams, Disenchantments, and Diversity.  By Kathleen Pickering, Mark H. Harvey, Gene F. Summers, and David Mushinski.  American Journal of Sociology. 114 (1): 245-247.

Setari, Anthony* and Julie N. Zimmerman. Forthcoming. “TANF and SNAP participation fluctuations during the Great Recession and implications for Family and Consumer Sciences Cooperative Extension Services.” The Forum for Family and Consumer Issues.

 Zimmerman, Julie N. Women in the early years of the Rural Sociological Society: Biographical and professional histories. 2013-present.

Zimmerman, Julie N. “What’s Rural Got To Do With It?  Rural Sociologists and the ASR Rebellion in the American Sociological Association.” 

Zimmerman, Julie N. “An Unexpected Legacy: Women, Early Rural Sociological Research, and the Limits of Linearity.”

Demographic patterns

Zimmerman, Julie N. Forthcoming. “The American Community Survey: Resources for the Occasional Data User.”  Journal of Extension.

Youth Development

Jones, K. (2013). Reading, Writing & Rewards: A Motivation for Learning. This program is in partnership with the UK Office of Community Engagement and Fayette County Public Schools. The program aims to investigate incentivized learning and the role of group mentoring among elementary school youth.

Jones, K., Ashurst, K. Kurzynske, J. (co-PI’s). Strong Dads, Resilient Families: Kentucky Sustainable Communities Project. Children, Youth and Families at Risk grant (USDA/NIFA, funder); 5/2013 – 5/2017; Total amount awarded - $574,000.


Leadership development

Shelton, C. and L. Garkovich. 2013. Assessing factors influencing political engagement in local communities,” Journal of Community Development Society, DOI: 10.1080/15575330.2013.822401. Published online: 02 Aug 2013

Hancock, D. L., Dyk, P. & Jones, K.R. (2012). Adolescent involvement in extracurricular activities: Influences on leadership skills. Journal of Leadership Education, 11(1). Available online at:

Patricia Dyk; Lissa Pohl;  collaborated with UK Healthcare nurse researchers, Carol Noriega, Janine Lindgreen and Robyn Cheung on the two-year study, titled The Effectiveness of Equine Guided Leadership Education to Develop Emotional Intelligence in Expert Nurses.

Community engagement and empowerment

Garkovich, L. 2012.  Building solidarity and agency through a participatory visioning process. Chapter 7, pp. 113-134. IN: N. Walzer and G. Hamm, eds. Community Visioning Programs: Processes and Outcomes. Routledge, NY.

Harris, Rosalind, Marcus Bernard, Maureen Mullinax, Dreamel Worthen, Sokoya Finch, Vernonica Womak. 2012. “Attending to Place, Race, and Community: Trans-local Partnering between Scholars and Activists in Central Appalachia and the Black Belt South.” Journal of Appalachian Studies 18(1-2):206-219.


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Community and Organizational Development

Community Communication

Agricultural Education

Community-based Education

Leadership Development