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Appendix 9

SCOUTING REFERENCE TABLE - DISEASES

Pest Where to look When to look What to record Comments
Scab Flower bud leaves Starting 10-14 days post bud break No. leaves with spots May be noticed first on underside of leaf. Cortland, Empire, Jersey Mac, Jonagold, McIntosh, Mutsu, Rome, and Staymen are very susceptible to scab.
Leaves Beginning at emergence No. leaves with spots
Fruit Fruit set through maturity No. scabby fruit
Fire blight Blossom/spurs Bloom period to first cover No. blighted blossoms/spurs Especially during warm, humid, rainy periods. Fuji, Gala, Granny Smith, Indared, Jonathan, Mutsu, Paulared, Rome, & York are extremely susceptible.
Twigs suckers During active shoot growth No. blighted twigs
Powdery mildew Leaves/terminal shoots During active shoot growth No. mildewed terminals Cortland, Granny Smith, Idared, Jonathan, Mutsu, and Rome are highly susceptible
Rust Cedar branches Starting at apple pink bud Emergence of orange fungal telia from cedar galls Note presence of cedar galls before and during bloom; this signals probable apple infection periods. TYPE 1 common on Sir Prize, Prima, Lodi, Jonathan, Rome, Wealthy, & York Imperial. TYPE 2 common on Cortland, McIntosh, Red Delicious, Golden Delicious, Staymen, and Winesap. See page 34 for description of Type 1 and Type 2 fruit spots.
Leaves Starting 30 days post bloom No. leaves with rust lesions
Fruit (especially blossom end) Fruit set to maturity No. of fruit with rust colored spots (Type 1) & dark sunken blossom end spots (Type 2)
Frogeye leaf spot Leaves Beginning at petal fall No. Leaves with spots Also note presence of dead twigs & branches, branch cankers, fruit mummies, leaf yellowing and drop.
Collar rot Orchard All season No. weak or collapsing trees. Look for brown stain under bark at tree base. Most severe on clonal rootstocks MM.104, MM.106, & M.26. M.7 & M.2 have some field resistance.
Canker Twig and limbs All season Record occurance of cankers Especially on weakened or poorly growing trees.
Black rot Fruit As fruit ripen No. of affected fruit More common on old trees. Note presence of mummified fruit in trees.
Bitter Rot Fruit When fruit are half grown through maturity No. of affected fruit Look also for other rots which occasionally appear on fruits.
Sooty blotch Flyspeck Fruit As fruit reach maturity No. of affected fruit Note disease as light (less than 5% of surface blemished), moderate (5-20%) or severe (20% or more).


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