Integrated Pest Management
Kentucky Integrated Pest Management<br> Annual Summary 1986
Eighteen counties participated in formal county-based Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programs in 1986. These programs included 1,241 fields with a total of 40,328 acres. There undoubtedly were also farmers who scouted their own fields based on IPM training they received in the past, but no data exists to document the number of acres involved in IPM in this fashion.
Approximately 62% of the acreage enrolled in county-based IPM programs was planted in corn. Soybeans accounted for 28% of the acreage followed by wheat with 6%. Alfalfa (2%), grain sorghum (2%), oats (0.2%), and tobacco (0.1%) were relatively small components of the total picture.
The most common disease, insect, and weed pests were arbitrarily identified as those affecting 50% or more of the fields planted in a given crop. Leaf spots were reported in nearly 60% of alfalfa fields in the program, with about half over the reporting value. Powdery mildew and Septoria leaf blotch were reported in wheat, although the majority of these fields were under the respective reporting values for these diseases.
Alfalfa weevil and Potato leafhopper were widespread in alfalfa. Because the reporting value for Alfalfa weevil is one per sample, all fields reporting Alfalfa weevil were over the reporting value for this pest. European corn borer was commonly found in corn fields with about half over the reporting value. A number of pests were reported from tobacco fields including Aphids, Flea beetle, Grasshopper, and Tobacco hornworm, although only Aphids were over the reporting value in a majority of fields reporting this pest. Cereal leaf beetle was reported as common in the two oat fields surveyed.
A number of weeds were reported as common in the crops surveyed; a few weed pests were over their reporting values in the majority of fields affected. Common weeds included Cocklebur and Johnsongrass in grain sorghum; Black nightshade, Chickweed, Cocklebur, Common ragweed, Crabgrass, Dock, Giant ragweed, Lambsquarters, Morningglory, Prickly sida, Ragweed, Shattercane, Smartweed, Wild garlic, and Wild sweet potato in oats; Cocklebur, Morningglory, and Prickly sida in soybeans; and Wild garlic in wheat.
Extension specialists were asked to provide lists of pests of particular concern for each crop in the IPM program. Pests in this category found in alfalfa in 1986 included Sclerotinia crown and stem rot, Leaf spots, Anthracnose, Alfalfa weevil, Potato leafhopper, Chickweed, Mustards, and Dock. Stalk rots, Ear rots, and Anthracnose were found in corn in 1986 as well as a number of insect pests, including European corn borer, Black cutworm, Fall Armyworm, Armyworm, and the three corn rootworm beetle species (Northern, Southern, and Western). Weeds of particular concern in corn included Johnsongrass, Shattercane, Honeyvine milkweed, Giant ragweed, and Cocklebur. No diseases of concern were reported for grain sorghum in 1986. A few fields reported Fall armyworm, Sorghum midge, and Aphids, but generally numbers of these pests were low. Johnsongrass, Crabgrass, and Cocklebur were weeds of particular concern reported for grain sorghum in 1986. Only two fields of oats were included in the 1986 IPM survey; no diseases of concern were reported. Cereal leaf beetle was the only insect pest of concern reported; it was found in both fields. Wild garlic and Chickweed were weeds of concern reported for oats. Phytophthora root rot was the only soybean disease noted; insect pests included Bean leaf beetle, Grasshopper, Green cloverworm, and Soybean podworm (aka Corn earworm). All the weeds of particular concern were reported from soybean fields in 1986 and most fields were over their reporting values: Johnsongrass, Cocklebur, Black nightshade, Giant ragweed, and Velvetleaf. Blue mold was the only disease of concern reported in tobacco in 1986. Tobacco hornworm, Tobacco budworm, Aphids, Flea beetle, and Wireworm were reported; most or all the fields reported Tobacco hornworm, Aphids, and Flea beetle present, with many of the fields over reporting values for these pests. Weeds, on the other hand, were not so prevalent; Morningglory, Lambsquarters, and Pigweeds were reported from a small number of tobacco fields. All the diseases of concern in wheat were reported from fields in the 1986 program, including Viruses, Powdery mildew, Leaf rust, Septoria leaf blotch, and Glume blotch. Insects of particular concern in wheat that were reported included Aphids, Armyworm, and Cereal leaf beetle. Weed species of concern in wheat reported for 1986 included Wild garlic, Chickweed, Henbit, and Mustards.
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