BACK
CHAPTERS 1, 2, 4, 5, & 6
CHAPTER 1: ADOLESCENTS IN SOCIAL CONTEXT
1. Define adolescence and explain how it is related to the terms maturity, puberty, pubescence, teenager, juvenile, and youth.
2. List and explain five different approaches to the study of adolescence and indicate which one is used in the text.
3. Explain why a knowledge of this society is necessary for understanding its adolescents.
4. List some factors that produced the computer revolution, and describe some of its advantages and disadvantages for adolescents and their families.
5. List some causes of the materialistic revolution, and explain how it impacts adolescents and their families.
6. List some factors that produced the education revolution, and describe some of its advantages and disadvantages for adolescents and their families.
7. Explain what is meant by the family revolution, and explain how it impacts adolescents and their parents.
8. Explain what is meant by the sexual revolution, and describe some of its advantages and disadvantages for adolescents and their families.
9. Explain what is meant by the violence revolution, and describe some of its effects on adolescents and their families.


CHAPTER 2: ADOLESCENTS IN THEORETICAL CONTEXT
1. Describe Arnold Gesell's developmental theory of spiral growth patterns, and indicate his position on the relative influence of heredity and environment on development.
2. List and explain Sigmund Freud's five stages of psychosexual development.
3. Explain Freud's conception of the return and resolution of the Oedipal and Electra situations in adolescence.
4. Explain Freud's conception of the physical and sensual element and the psychic element of the sexual aim during adolescence.
5. Define and explain the concept of individuation and its importance in adolescence.
6. Describe Anna Freud's view of adolescence and the relevance of the id, ego, and superego and defense mechanisms for adolescent behavior.
7. List and describe the eight stages of Erik Erikson's psychosocial theory of development, noting the crisis in each.
8. List and explain the seven conflicts that Erikson believes must be resolved during adolescence.
9. List Erikson's seven components of adolescent  identity, and discuss the timing of their establishment.
10. Explain Robert Havighurst's  concept of developmental tasks and list the eight which adolescents must master.
11. Describe Kurt Lewin's field theory and explain the marginal man concept that he uses to explain adolescent behavior.
12. Explain how the concepts of schema, assimilation, accommodation, disequilibrium, and equilibrium explain Jean Piaget's theory of cognitive development.
13. List Piaget's four stages of cognitive development, indicate the approximate ages during which they exist, and describe several cognitive function that develop during adolescence.
14. Define Robert Selman's concept of social cognition, list his stages of the development of perspective-taking, and describe Stage 4 in terms of the level of social cognition adolescents may attain.
15. List and describe the four systems in Urie Brofenbrenner's ecological model, and indicate how adolescents are influenced by each.
16. Explain how the concepts of modeling and reinforcement in Albert Bandura's social learning theory explains the increase in aggressive behavior among children and adolescent's.
17. Explain how social-cognitive theory differs from social learning theory and indicate how the former may help to explain adolescent behavior.
18. Explain how the cultural determinism/relativism views of Margaret Mead and Ruth Benedict explain differences in the adolescent experience.
19. Describe three discontinuities in Western culture that influence the nature of adolescence in our society.
20. Describe some ways that Margaret Mead believed parent-child relationships could be improved in order to avoid a generation gap.


CHAPTER 4: SEXUAL MATURATION AND PHYSICAL GROWTH
1. List and describe the functions of three pituitary hormones that bring about puberty.
2. List and describe the functions of the male and female gonads.
3. Describe the location and function of the adrenal glands.
4. Describe the role of the hypothalamus in the beginning of puberty.
5. List and describe the functions of the male sex hormones.
6. List and describe the functions of the female sex hormones.
7. List and describe the functions of the primary male sex organs.
8. Describe the stages of development of the primary male sex organs.
9. List and describe the functions of the primary female sex organs.
10. Describe the stages of development of the primary female sex organs.
11. List and describe the four phases of the menstrual cycle.
12. List and describe several menstrual problems that afflict women.
13. Describe the sequence and development of the secondary sex characteristics of males.
14. Describe the sequence and development of the female secondary sex characteristics.
15. Compare the growth in height and weight of adolescent boys and girls.


CHAPTER 5: BODY IMAGE
1. List some correlates of physical attractiveness for adolescents.
2. List and describe three body types noted by your author.
3. Describe the ideal masculine and feminine body images which adolescents strive for.
4. List, explain and illustrate three categories of the physical causes of obesity.
5. List and explain some psychological contributors of obesity.
6. Describe some characteristics of successful approaches to treating obesity.
7. Describe anorexia nervosa, some of the social and psychological situations associated with the disease, and the characteristics of an effective treatment program.
8. Describe bulimia, some of the social and psychological situations associated with the disease and the characteristics of an effective treatment program.
9. List and explain the benefits of proper exercise for adolescents.
10. List and explain five common nutritional deficiencies experienced by adolescents.
11. List and explain five reasons for the inadequate diets of many adolescents, and describe the role that nutritional education plays in improving this situation.
12. Describe three kinds of skin glands and the problems they cause for adolescents.
13. Describe several treatments for acne and note any dangers involved.
14. Compare the psychosocial outcomes for early-maturing and late-maturing boys.
15. Compare the psychosocial outcomes for early-maturing and late-maturing girls.


CHAPTER 6: COGNITIVE GROWTH AND CHANGE
1. List and describe the focus of three approaches to the study of cognition.
2. List the names and approximate ages for Piaget's four stages of cognitive development.
3. Describe the type of operation that Berzonsky believes individuals are capable of using in each of Piaget's four stages.
4. List and illustrate four operations which Muuss believes the concrete operational child can perform.
5. List and describe four major aspects of formal thinking as described by Piaget.
6. List and explain several effects that adolescents' thinking has on their personality and behavior.
7. List and explain seveeral criticisms of Piaget's theory of cognitive development.