Nontechnical references

  • Calder, J.H., 2013, The Joggins fossil cliffs—Coal Age Galapagos: Nova Scotia Department of Natural Resources, 85 p.
  • Falcon-Lang, H.J., DiMichele, W.A., Elrick, S., and Nelson, W.J., 2009, Going underground: In search of Carboniferous coal forests: Geology Today, v. 25, no. 5, p. 181–184.
  • Illinois State Geological Survey, 2012, Pennsylvanian mire forest: Illinois State Geological Survey, Prairie Research Institute website, http://crystal.isgs.uiuc.edu/research/coal/fossil-forest/lycospids.shtml [accessed 3/10/2015].
  • Scott, A.C., and Calder, J.H., 1994, Carboniferous fossil forests: Geology Today, v. 10, no. 6, p. 213–217.

Carboniferous Fossil Tree Stump References (Technical)

  • Baker, R.A., and DiMichele, W.A., 1997, Biomass allocation in Late Pennsylvanian coal-swamp plants: Palaios, v. 12, p.127–132.
  • Calder, J.H., Gibling, M.R., Eble, C.F., Scott, A.C., and MacNeil, D.J., 1996, The Westphalian D fossil lepidodendrid forest at Table Head, Sydney Basin, Nova Scotia: Sedimentology, paleoecology and floral response to changing edaphic conditions: International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 31, no.1, p. 277–313.
  • DiMichele, W.A., and DeMaris, P.J., 1987, Structure and dynamics of a Pennsylvanian-age Lepidodendron forest: Colonizers of a disturbed swamp habitat in the Herrin (No. 6) Coal of Illinois: Palaios, v. 2, no. 2, p. 146–157.
  • DiMichele, W.A., Eble, C.F., and Chaney, D.S., 1996, A drowned lycopsid forest above the Mahoning coal (Conemaugh Group, Upper Pennsylvanian) in eastern Ohio, U.S.A.: International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 31, p. 249–276.
  • DiMichele, W.A., and Falcon-Lang, H.J., 2011, Pennsylvanian “fossil forests” in growth position (T0 assemblages): Origin, taphonomic bias and palaeoecological insights: Journal of the Geological Society, v. 168, no. 2, p. 585–605.
  • DiMichele, W.A., and Phillips, T.L., 1994, Paleobotanical and paleoecological constraints on models of peat formation in the Late Carboniferous of Euramerica: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, v. 106, p. 39–90.
  • Falcon-Lang, H.J., Benton, M.J., Braddy, S.J., and Davies, S.J., 2006, The Pennsylvanian tropical biome reconstructed from the Joggins Formation of Nova Scotia, Canada: Journal of the Geological Society, v. 163, no. 3, p. 561–576.
  • Gastaldo, R.A., 1986, Implications on the paleoecology of autochthonous lycopods in clastic sedimentary environments of the Early Pennsylvanian of Alabama: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, v. 53, no. 2, p. 191–212.
  • Rygel, M.C., Gibling, M.R., and Calder, J.H., 2004, Vegetation-induced sedimentary structures from fossil forests in the Pennsylvanian Joggins Formation, Nova Scotia: Sedimentology, v. 51, no. 3, p. 531–552.

Fossil Tree Stump Historic References

  • Binney, E.W., 1842, On the fossil trees found standing upright in the coal measures: Proceedings of the Geological and Polytechnic Society of the West Riding of Yorkshire, v. 2, p. 186–187.
  • Binney, E.W., 1844, XXVII. On the remarkable fossil trees lately discovered near St. Helen's: The London, Edinburgh, and Dublin Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science, v. 24, no.158, p. 165–173.
  • Binney, E.W., 1847, On fossil calamites found standing in an erect position in the Carboniferous strata near Wigan, Lancashire: The London, Edinburgh, and Dublin Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science, v. 31, no. 208, p. 259–266.
  • Binney, E.W., and Harkness, R., 1845, XXXV. An account of the fossil trees found at St. Helen's: The London, Edinburgh, and Dublin Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science, v. 27, no. 180, p. 241–252.
  • Broadhurst, F.M., and Magraw, D., 1959, On a fossil tree found in an opencast coal site near Wigan, Lancashire: Geological Journal, v. 2, p. 155–158.
  • Brongniart, A.T., 1821. Sur la classification et la distribution des végétaux fossiles en général, et sur ceux des terrains de sediment supérieuen en particulier: Mémoirs du Museum d’ Histoire Naturalle de Paris, v. 8, p. 203–240, 297–348.
  • Brown, R., 1849, Description of erect Sigillariae with conical tap roots, found in the roof of the Sydney Main Coal, in the island of Cape Breton: Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, v. 5, nos. 1–2, p. 354–360.
  • Dawson, J.W., 1845, On the newer coal formation of the eastern part of Nova Scotia: Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, v. 1, no. 1, p. 322–330.
  • Dawson, J.W. 1855, Acadian geology. An account of the geological structure and mineral resources of Nova Scotia, and portions of the neighbouring provinces of British America [1st ed.]: Edinburgh, Oliver and Boyd Publishing, 388 p.
  • Dawson, J.W., 1882, On the results of recent explorations of erect trees containing animal remains in the coal-formation of Nova Scotia: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, v. 173, p. 621–659.
  • Grossart, W., 1877, X. Notes on a tract of vertical trees in Carboniferous strata: Transactions of the Geological Society of Glasgow, v. 5, no. 2, p. 184–188.
  • Hawkshaw, J., 1841a, XV.—Description of the fossil trees found in the excavations for the Manchester and Bolton Railway: Transactions of the Geological Society of London, v. 1, p. 173–176.
  • Hawkshaw, J., 1841b, XVI.—Further observations on the fossil trees found on the Manchester and Bolton Railway: Transactions of the Geological Society of London, v. 1, p. 177–180.
  • Ick, W., 1845, Description of the remains of numerous fossil dicotyledonous trees in an outcrop of the Bottom Coal at Parkfield Colliery, near Bilston: Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, v. 1, p. 43–46.
    Logan, W.E., 1843, Joggins, Bay of Fundy, Nova Scotia (1842–1843): Logan's field notebook: National Archives of Canada, RG45, v. 158, item 1962, various pagination.
  • Lyell, C., 1842, Letter to his sister, July 30, in Lyell, K.M., ed., Life, letters, and journals of Sir Charles Lyell, Bart (published in 1881): London, Murray Publishing, p. 64–66.
  • Lyell, C., 1843, On the upright fossil-trees found at different levels in the coal strata of Cumberland, Nova Scotia: Proceedings of the Geological Society of London, v. 4, p. 176–178.
  • Lyell, C., and Dawson, J.W., 1853, On the remains of a reptile (Dendrerpeton acadianum Wyman and Owen), and of a land shell discovered in the interior of an erect fossil tree in the coal measures of Nova Scotia: Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London, v. 9, p. 58–63.
  • Owen, D.D., 1857, Third report of the Geological Survey of Kentucky, made during the years 1856 and 1857: Kentucky Geological Survey, ser. 1, v. 3, 589 p.
  • Pattinson, H.L., 1830, XXVI. On the fossil trees found in Jefferies Rake Vein at Derwent lead mine in the county of Durham: Philosophical Magazine and Annals, p. 185–189.
  • Sorby, H.C., 1875, On the remains of a fossil forest in the coal-measures at Wadsley, near Sheffield: Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, v. 31, nos. 1–4, p. 458–460.
  • Wood, N.,1830, Account of some fossil stems of trees, found penetrating through the strata above the High Main Coal, at Killingworth Colliery, at a depth of 48 fathoms: Transactions of the Natural History Society of Northumberland, v. 1, p. 205–215.
  • Young, J., and Glen, D.C., 1888, XIX. Notes on a section of Carboniferous strata, containing erect stems of fossil trees and beds of intrusive Dolerite, in the old Whinstone Quarry, Victoria Park, Lower Balshagray, near Whiteinch and Partick: Transactions of the Geological Society of Glasgow, v. 8, no. 2, p. 227–235.

Kettlebottoms and Mining References

  • Chase, F.E., and Sames, G.P., 1983, Kettlebottoms: Their relation to mine roof and support: U.S. Bureau of Mines Report of Investigations 8785, 12 p.
  • Greb, S.F., 1988, Kettlebottoms: Kentucky Geological Survey Open-File Report OF-88-03, 15 p.
  • Greb, S.F., 1991, Roof falls and hazard prediction in eastern Kentucky coal mines, in Peters, D.C., ed., Geology in coal utilization: American Association of Petroleum Geologists, p. 245–262.
  • Greb, S.F., and Cobb, J.C., 1989, Geologic classification and modeling of potential roof-control problems in underground coal mines of eastern Kentucky, in Lineberry, G.T., and Unrug, K.F., eds., Proceedings of the Multinational Conference on Mine Planning and Design: OES Publications, p. 27–32.
  • Hylbert, D.K., 1984, Geologic structures in selected coal beds within Appalachia: Appalachian Development Center, Morehead State University, 82 p.
  • Moebs, N.N., and Ellenberger, J.L., 1982, Geologic structures in coal mine roof: U.S. Bureau of Mines Report of Investigations 8620, 15 p.
  • Nelson, W.J., 1983, Geologic disturbances in Illinois coal seams: Illinois State Geological Survey, Circular 530, 47 p.

Kentucky Standing Fossil Tree Stumps and Kettlebottoms

  • Chesnut, D.R., Cobb, J.C. and Greb, S.F., 1992, “Pipe-organ structures” in the Lee Formation (Pennsylvanian) of the central Appalachian Basin: Animal or plant? Journal of Paleontology, v. 66, p. 148–156.
  • Easton, H.D., 1913, Bells or kettles: Coal Age, p. 582.
  • Greb, S.F., 1988, Kettlebottoms: Kentucky Geological Survey Open-File Report OF-88-03, 15 p.
  • Greb, S.F., 1991, Roof falls and hazard prediction in eastern Kentucky coal mines, in Peters, D.C., Geology in coal utilization: American Association of Petroleum Geologists, p. 245–262.
  • Greb, S.F., 1992, Heterogeneity in seam and roof related to mineability prediction: Hazard no. 8 coal, a case study, in Platt, J., Price, J., Miller, M., Suboleski, S., eds., 1.2–New geologic perspectives on central Appalachian low-sulfur coal supply: American Association of Petroleum Geologists (Techbooks, Fairfax, VA), p. 102–124.
  • Greb, S.F., and Cobb, J.C., 1989, Geologic classification and modeling of potential roof-control problems in underground coal mines of eastern Kentucky, in Lineberry, G.T., and Unrug, K.F., eds., Proceedings of the Multinational Conference on Mine Planning and Design: Lexington, Ky., OES Publications, p. 27–32.
  • Greb, S.F., and Popp, J.T., 1999, Mining geology of the Pond Creek seam, Pikeville Formation, Middle Pennsylvanian, in part of the Eastern Kentucky Coal Field, USA: International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 41, no. 1, p. 25–50.
  • Greb, S.F., Eble, C.F., and Hower, J.C., 1999, Depositional history of the Fire Clay coal bed (Late Duckmantian), eastern Kentucky, USA: International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 40, p. 255–280.
  • Huddle, J.W., and Englund, K., 1963, Geology and coal reserves of the Kermit and Varney area, Kentucky: U. S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 507, 36 p. [photograph of upright stump in Figure 11].
  • McFarlan, A.C., 1943, Geology of Kentucky: Lexington, University of Kentucky, 531 p. [photograph of a Sigillaria stump from Harlan County on p. 98, Fig. 4].
  • Owen, D.D., 1857, Third report of the Geological Survey of Kentucky, made during the years 1856 and 1857: Kentucky Geological Survey, ser 1, v. 3, 589 p.

Additional References Cited on this Web page

  • Blatt, H., Middleton, G., and Raymond, M., 1980, Origin of sedimentary rocks: Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, Prentice-Hall, 782 p.
  • Brady, N. C., and Weil, R.R., 2002, Formation of Soils from Parent Materials, in The nature and properties of soils (13th ed.): Upper Saddle River, N.J., Prentice Hall, p. 39–64.
  • Boesch, D.F., Levin, D., Nummedal, D., and Bowles, K., 1983, Subsidence in coastal Louisiana: Causes, rates, and effects on wetlands: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Biological Services Program, FWS/OBS-83/26, various pagination.
  • Drexler, J.Z., de Fontaine, C.S., and Deveral, S.J., 2009, The legacy of wetland drainage on the remaining peat in the Sacramento–San Joaquin delta, California, USA: Wetlands, v. 29, p. 372–386.
  • Kremenetski, K.V., Velichko, A.A., Borisova, O.K., MacDonald, G.M., Smith, L.C., Frey, K.E., and Orlova, L.A., 2003, Peatlands of the western Siberian lowlands: current knowledge on zonation, carbon content and Late Quaternary history: Quaternary Science Reviews, v. 22, p. 703–723.
  • MacDonald, G.M., Beilman, D.W., Kremenetski, K.V., Sheng, Y., Smith, L.C., and Velichko, A.A., 2006, Rapid early development of circumarctic peatlands and atmospheric CH4 and CO2 variations: Science, v. 314, no. 5797, p. 285–288.
  • Page, S.E., Wűst, R.A.J, Weiss, J.D., Rieley, J.O., Shotyk, W., and Limin, S.H., 2004, A record of Late Pleistocene and Holocene carbon accumulation and climate change from an equatorial peat bog (Kalimantan, Indonesia): Implications for past, present and future carbon dynamics: Journal of Quaternary Science, v. 19, p. 625–635.
  • Penland, S., and Ramsey, K.E., Relative sea-level rise in Louisiana and the Gulf of Mexico: 1908-1988: Journal of Coastal Research, v. 6, no. 2, p. 323–342.
  • Reading, H.J., 1978, Sedimentary environments and facies: Oxford, England, Blackwood Scientific Publications, 569 p.
  • Swanson, R.L., and Thurlow, C.I., 1973, Recent subsidence rates along the Texas and Louisiana coasts as determined from tide measurements: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 78, no. 15, p. 2665–2671.
    Van Breemen, N., and Buurman, P., 2002, Soil formation: New York, Springer Science and Business Media, 404 p.
  • Wakatsuki, T. and Rasyidin, A., 1992, Rates of weathering and soil formation: Geoderma, v. 52, p. 251–263.

 

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