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Smarter Balanced: Sample Items and Performance Tasks
Smarter Balanced sample items illustrate the rigor and complexity of the English language arts/literacy and mathematics items and performance tasks students will encounter on the Consortium’s next-generation assessments.

Partnership for Assesment of Readiness for College and Careers: Task Prototypes and Sample Items
The primary purpose of sharing samples of PARCC items is to provide information about the assessment system and support educators as they transition to the Common Core State Standards and the PARCC tests. The samples presented here are designed to shine a light on important elements of the CCSS and to show how critical content in the standards may appear in PARCC's next-generation, technology-based assessments.

Inside the black box: Raising standards through classroom assessment
Black, P. & Wiliam, D. (1998). Phi Delta Kappan, 80(2), 139-148.
Probably the most cited document on formative assessment, this article identifies efforts to raise student achievement levels that failed because they focused on standards and accountability while ignoring what teachers and students do in the classroom. The authors then proceed to summarize the research evidence that improving formative assessment practices significantly improves student performance and to describe how to go about developing better formative assessment skills of teachers.

The concept of formative assessment
Boston, C. (2002). Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, 8(9).
This item, in a peer-review electronic journal, very briefly describes formative assessment and some significant research related to it. It is cited here because it identifies several resources for teachers.

© University of Kentucky • An Equal Opportunity University • Last updated October 25, 2013 by Jessica Dutzy