'TRANSITIONAL ENGLISH FOR EVERYONE: TRANSLATORS' WORKING TEXT FOR ALL LANGUAGES'


'Lesson One'

'CONTENTS'

[A WORD TO THE TRANSLATOR]

{'This version of Transitional English is intended for individuals proficient both in English and their own native language. This version is intended to help them adapt this text to speakers of the translator's language, who may desire to learn English faster and easier than heretofore was possible. Anyone who is interested can make these lessons freely available to his compatriots by adapting this text to his native tongue. All that one needs to do is translate all the English passages into the language of his neighbors. In the vocabulary lists, and in the exercises found in the lessons, the translator who makes this text available to his compatriots, besides translating the directions into his native language, should also supply the equivalents of the exercise sentences in his own language and place them within the single quotes that are found in the exercises: ' ' , and thus throughout the text. '

'To seek help with the portions to be translated, the translator can consult the Spanish version of Transitional English that is to be found at the Web Page: http://www.uky.edu/~globlec. For additional help you may contact the authors at the e-mail address to be found at the end of this lesson.'

'Therefore, please translate from English all the directions, and supply all other appropriate passages into your native language, and then make copies of your adapted text available freely to your compatriots. We thank you for your interest in helping others. -- The authors'}

'Transitional English for Everyone is based on Standard English, which is the most widespread of the world' s languages. This text of simplified English is based on real usage. This is a useful form of English for interpersonal and intercultural face-to-face communication around the globe.'

'Read this complete lesson; learn the vocabulary and the dialogue by heart, and then, try to write the exercises.'

'We will begin with the Transitional English alphabet. The Standard English alphabet can be seen as the last item of Lesson 10, where it is given with the respective names of the various letters. Here, in the representation of the Transitional English alphabet, we are restricted in the use of the phonetic symbols by the limitations imposed currently by the inadequacies of the Internet software programs.'

'THE TRANSITIONAL ENGLISH ALPHABET'

'The Transitional English alphabet has 29 sounds':

'If you click on the underlined letters you will hear their pronunciation along with their names. [Then click on the play button in the Sound Recorder window that appears on the monitor.]'

A B CH ¥ D DH E F G H J I K L M
abichi dzhididhi efigi hijii kilimi
N O P R S SH T TH U V W Y Z ZH
niopi risishi tithiu viwiyi zizhi

'Some of these symbols, like the digraphs, sh and ch, have special values. The digraph sh has the sibilant palatal sound heard in the English shorts {Translate to your native language.}, or in the French ch as in chanter {Translate to your native language.}'to sing' , or as the final s in Portuguese nos. The zh has the value of the French j as in the word jour, or as the Portuguese g in the word fugir. The American English h is pronounced like the Cuban Spanish glottal j (without velar aspiration). The digraph th has the sound of the Castilian Spanish c as in the word ceceo, and the digraph dh has the sound of the Castilian Spanish d as in lado. Both th and dh are interdental sounds (with the tip of the tongue held between the front teeth, the difference between the two is that th is unvoiced, while the vocal chords do function for the pronunciation of the dh. The Transitional English j has the same phonetic value as the Castilian Spanish letter, a velar aspirate, and the same as the German ch seen in the famous composer' s name Bach'.

'Another special letter is the ¥. The ¥ begins as an occlusive d and ends as a palatal aspirate zh. The ¥ is the voiced counterpart of the unvoiced ch, which begins with a t and ends with a sh. The ¥ is described linguistically as: consonant, affricate, alveolar-palatal, occlusive-aspirate, voiced.'

'The distinction between an unvoiced and a voiced consonant depends on the vibration of the vocal chords. The chords do not vibrate for the unvoiced consonant, but do so for the voiced, in the same manner as they vibrate for the vowels.'

'THE STRESS AND QUANTITY [DURATIVE] ACCENTS'

'The stress accent is indicated in our text by the sign [' ]. This sign usually appears on the vowels and occasionally above the r [r' ], whenever the r is the nucleus of a syllable in a polysyllabic word. The quantity, or durative accent, that is, the prolonged duration of a vowel is indicated by two points above the vowel, or as this diacritical mark is sometimes called, by the 'umlaut' [ä].

Hence we indicate two types of vowels in American English: (1) the vowels a, e, i, o, and u are short; click here to listen to the pronunciation of the short vowels; and (2) the vowels ä, ë, ï, ö, and ü are long (in which the umlaut shows the prolonged vocalic quantity); click here to listen to the long vowels.'

'There is also a neutral vowel.'

'NEUTRAL VOWEL'

'When the American English vowels are not accented, they often take on a neutral value. In linguistics, this weakened vowel is usually referred to as a 'schwa' . In our text, the neutralized, or weakened, vowels are generally represented by a u with a circumflex: û.'

Bandor, OR Pacific Ocean coast near Bandon, OR

'THE DIPHTHONGS'

'When the vowels, a e i o u, are combined with the semiconsonants y and w, such a combination constitutes only one syllable (see some examples below)'.


ay 'as the pronoun' I wa 'as in number' one
oy 'as in' boy we 'as in' well
ey 'as in' they wi 'as in' window
uy 'as in' bouy wo 'as in' quote
aw 'as in' how

VOKÉBYULERI (VOCABULARY) 'MEANING IN YOUR LANGUAGE' (1)

{'In the vocabulary lists that follow, the parentheses will indicate the normal orthography of American English. Each entry will be in three parts. The first part of each entry is the pronunciation of the word presented in Transitional English spelling; the second part is the normal English spelling, and the third part, placed within single quotes ' ' is the meaning of the word given in your own language -- which is in anyone of the more than six thousand seven hundred languages that are spoken around the world at this time'.

{'The proper names are usually to be left in the orthography of the original language, with their pronunciation being indicated within square brackets, v.g. John [¥an].'}.)

aráwnd (around), prep. ' between parentheses, supply meanings in your own language'
av (of), prep. ' '
ay (I), pron. ' '
banéna (banana), n. ' '
bat (but), conj. ' '
bay (bye), n. ' '
bed (bed), n. ' ' ; bed ënd brékfûst (bed and breakfast), fr. ' '
bëk (back), n. ' '
bï (be), v. ' '
bred (bread), n. ' '
brékfûst (breakfast), n. ' '
dhen (then), adv. ' '
dhet (that), adj. ' '
dhet wans (that ones) pron. ' '
dey (day), n. ' '
dínr (dinner), n. ' '
dhis (this), adj. sing. and pl. ' '
drink (drink), v. ' '
du (do), v. ' '
eg (egg), n. ' '
ënd (and), conj. ' '
éni (any), adj. ' '
Éshlûnd (Ashland), p.n. ' '
farm, n. ' '
fármr (farmer), n. ' '
fayn (fine), adj. ' '
féktri (factory), n. ' '
for (for), prep. ' '
frend (friend), n. ' '
from (from), prep. ' '
giv (give), v. ' '
go (go), v. ' '
gud (good), adj. ' '
¥än (John), p.n. ' '
¥ow (Joe), n. p. ' '
häw (how), interr. ' '
hélow (hello), n. ' '
hémbrgr (hamburger), n. ' '
hëv (have), v. ' '
hïr (here), adv. ' '
in (in), prep. ' '
Ínglish (English), p.n. ' '
ïst (east), n. ' '
ït (eat), v. ' '
it (it), pron. ' '
kam (come), v. ' '
kanstrákshn (construction), n. ' '
kap (cup), n. ' copa, taza'
Kávingtûn (Covington), p.n. ' '
kaynd (kind), adj. ' '
Kentáki (Kentucky), p.n. ' '
kófi (coffee), n. ' '
Kórbin (Corbin), p.n. ' '
krïm (cream), n. ' '
lak (luck), n. ' '
lanch (lunch), n. ' '
Léksingtûn (Lexington), p.n. ' '
lrn (learn), v. ' '
luk (look), v. ' '
Lúivil (Louisville), p.n. ' '
Méksikûn (Mexican), p.n. ' '
Méksiko (Mexico), p.n. ' '
méybi (maybe), adv. ' '
milk (milk), n. ' '
mórning (morning), n. ' '
motél (motel), n. ' '
neym (name), n. ' '
nïd (need), v. ' '
north (north), n. ' '
Oháyo (Ohio), p.n. ' '
ónli (only), adv. ' '
or (or), conj. ' '
orí¥ûnli (originally), adv. ' '
pépr (pepper), n. ' '
píses (pieces), n. pl. ' '
pleys (place), n. ' '
plïz (please), v. ' '
rayt (right), adj. ' '
réstrant (restaurant), n. ' '
ripáblik (republic), n. ' '
Sándey (Sunday), p.n. ' '
sápr (supper), n. ' '
sawth (south), n. ' '
séndwich (sandwich), n. ' '
Sétrdey (Saturday), p.n. ' '
shúgr (sugar), n. ' '
shur (sure), adv. ' '
sï (see), v. ' '
sírial (cereal), n. ' '
skrëmbled (scrambled), v. ' '
Slóvak (Slovak), n. p. ' '
so löng (so long), fr. ' '
solt (salt), n. ' '
Spénish (Spanish), p.n. ' '
spïk (speak), v. ' '
Téksûs (Texas), p.n. ' '
teyk (take), v. ' '
thenk (thank), v. ' '
thenks (thanks), n. ' '
tówsted (toasted), adj. ' '
tu (to), prep. ' '
tu (two), adj. ' '
tú (too), adv. ' '
tudéy (today), n. ' '
tumárow (tomorrow), adv. ' '
wan (one), adj., pron. ' '
want (want), v. ' '
wat (what), interr. ' '
wel (well), adv. ' '
wélkam (welcome), adj. ' '
wër (where), adv., interr. ' '
west (west), n. ' '
wil- (will), v. ' '
wrk (work), n. ' '
yéstrdey (yesterday), n. ' '
yu (you), pron. ' '

Hot Ait Balloon

DÁYALOG (DIALOGUE)
'Title'
In ' Bed ënd Brékfûst' motél (In a ' Bed and Breakfast' motel)' '
John.--Gud mörning. (Good morning.)
Joe.--Hélow. Häw bï yu? (Hello. How be you?)
John.--Fayn. Thenk yu, ënd yu? (Fine. Thank you, and you?)
Joe.--Fayn. Thenks. (Fine. Thanks.)
John.--Ay bï ¥an. Wat bï av-yu neym? (I be John. What be of you name?)
Joe.--Ay bï ¥ow. Wër yu from. (I be Joe. Where you from?)
John.--Ay bï from Oháyo, ënd yu? (I be from Ohio, and you?)
Joe.--Ay bï from Téksûs. (I be from Texas.)
John.--Wel, ay kam orí¥ûnli from Slóvak Ripáblik. Ay bï Slóvak. Ay spïk Slóvak. (Well, I come originally from Slovak Republic. I be Slovak. I speak Slovak.)
Joe.--Wel, dhen, ay kam orí¥ûnli from Méksiko. Ay bï Méksikûn. Ay spïk Spënish. (Well, then, I come originally from Mexico. I be Mexican. I speak Spanish.)
John.-- Wen yu kámed hïr? (When you comed here?)
Joe.--Ay kámed Sétrdey. Ënd yu? (I comed Saturday. And you?)
John.--Ay kámed yéstrdey-- Sándey. Wat yu ït for brékfûst? (I comed yesterday--Sunday. What you eat for breakfast?)
Joe.--Tudéy, ay ït ónli sírial with milk ënd banéna. Ay nat layk drink kófi. Ënd yu? (Today, I eat only cereal with milk and banana. I not like drink coffee. And you?)
John.--Ay wil-ït wan skrëmbled eg, tu pïses av tówsted bred, ënd kap av kófi with krïm ënd shúgr. Dhis egs nïd solt ënd pépr. Plïz, giv tu ay solt ënd pépr. (I will eat one scrambled egg, two pieces of toasted bread, and cup of coffee with cream and sugar. These eggs need salt and pepper. Please, give to I salt and pepper.)
Joe.--Shur. Hïr. (Sure. Here.)
John.--Thenk yu. (Thank you.)
Joe.--Yu wélkam. (You welcome.)
John.--Wat yu du hïr? Way yu kam hïr? (What you do here? Why you come here?)
Joe.--Ay kam luk for wrk, ënd lrn Ínglish. (I come look for work, and learn English.)
John.--Ay du seym thing: luk for wrk ënd lrn spïk Ínglish. (I do same thing: look for work and learn speak English.)
Joe.-- Wat kaynd wrk yu luk for? (What kind work you look for?)
John.--Éni kaynd--farm, féktri, réstrant, kanstrákshn, yu neym it. (Any kind--farm, factory, restaurant, construction, you name it.)
Joe.--Ay luk for wrk an farm. Ay bï fármr. (I look for work on farm. I be farmer.)
John.--Yu kam tu rayt pleys. Dhër bï gud farm wrk aráwnd Lexington. (You come to right place. There be good farm work around Lexington.)
Joe.--Yu ólso luk for wrk in Lexington? (You also look for work in Lexington?)
John.--Yes, bat if ay nat wrk in Lexington, méybi ay go west tu Louisville, or ïst tu Ashland, or sawth to Corbin, or north tu Covington. (Yes, but if I not work in Lexington, maybe I go west to Louisville, or east to Ashland, or south to Corbin, or north to Covington.)
Joe.--Wel, gud lak. (Well, good luck.)
John.--Thenk yu. Gud lak tu yu tú. (Thank you. Good luck to you too.)
Joe.--So long. Sï yu tumárow. (So long. See you tomorrow.)
John.--Wel, méybi tunáyt ay wil-bï bëk for sápr. Bay. Hëv gud dey. (Well, maybe tonight I will be back for supper. Bye. Have good day.)

'Language has to do with things (nouns) and actions (verbs). Transitional English normally omits the definite [dha=(the)] and indefinite [a=(a)] articles. These, of course, will be learned later when you pass to Standard English.'

One thingacts onanother thing.
SUBJECT-nounVERBOBJECT-noun
Ayïtsírial.
(Ieatcereal.)
' .'
Yuïteg.
(Youeategg.)
' .'

'The function of any word in Transitional English is determined by its position in the sentence. The order is always: subject (S) --verb (V) -- object (O). As stated earlier, both the definite and indefinite articles are normally omitted in Transitional English. The lack of articles is seen in many other languages, including those of Chinese and of the Slovanic branch.'


'PLURALITY'

'To the singular noun, (eg) ' ' , we add an -s in order to form the plural (egs ' ' ). If the word already ends in -s in the singular, then we form the plural by adding an -es [s. pïs (piece) ' ' , pl. pïses (pieces) ' ' ], even though this plural ending is often pronounced with a schwa vowel, [-ûs].'


'THE PRONOUNS'

'The pronouns remain unchanged for all cases: subject, direct and indirect objects, possessive, etc.: ay (I) ' ' , yu (you) ' ' hi (hi), etc.'

ay (I) ' '
yu (you) [sing.] ' '
yu (you) [pl.] ' '


'THE TENSES'

'To demonstrate the various tenses of an action, we add the appropriate endings to the verb' s root. The root of a verb is its infinitive form: ït (eat), luk (look), skrëmbl (scramble), töst (toast)'.

'To form the PRESENT tense of a verb with any pronoun, we merely make use of the infinitive form without any change: ït ' ' , luk ' ' , töst ' ' . These forms describe the action at the moment of its occurrence.'

'To form the PAST tense, we add the suffix -ed to the verb-root ït, luk, skrëmbl, töst: ïted (ate) ' ' , lúked (looked) ' ' , skrëmbled (scrambled) ' ' , tösted (toasted) ' ' . This tense shows a completed action.'

'To form the FUTURE tense we use the prefix wil- before the root-verb. [This tense indicates an action still to begin.']

'PAST':

AykámedSándey.
(IcomedSunday.)
'Translate to yourlanguage.'
Yukámedfrom Méksiko.
(Youcomedfrom Mexico.)
'Translateto yourlanguage.'

'FUTURE':

Aywil-ïtegs.
(Iwill eateggs.)
'Translate to yourlanguage.'

'Each noun and verb follows the rules indicated above WITHOUT EXCEPTION. Every Standard English irregular verb like eat, ate, will eat is regularized in Transitional English to: ït (eat) [present tense], ïted (eated) [past tense], wil-ït (will-eat) [future tense].'

'There is no grammatical gender in Transitional English. There are no masculine, femenine, nor neuter nouns, as happens in many languages. While Transitional English avoids using articles, even Standard English (henceforth SE) uses only one definite article (the [dha]) which remains genderless and numberless, being the same for all genders and for both singular and plural nouns. Hence SE (the salt) becomes in TE simply solt.'

Plïz giv tu ay [dha] solt ënd pépr. (Please give to I [the] salt and pepper.) 'Place translation in your language between these single quotes.' The word between the brackets is omitted..

'THE POSSESSIVE': The possessive form is expressed with the preposition av (of) ' ' . Thus 'your name' in TE becomes av-yu neym. 'My name' in TE is av-ay neym ' ' . An alternative form consists of the pronoun plus an apostrophe and s: yu' s neym 'your name' , ay' s neym 'my name' , etc.

'THE INTERROGATIVES': Questions usually begin with the interrogative words: häw (how) ' ' , wen (when) ' ' , wër (where) ' ' , way (why) ' ' .


ADDITIONAL VOCABULARY (2):

NOUNS

Transitional English (English), 'Your language' Transitional English (English), 'Your language'
frend (friend), ' ' boy (boy), ' '
brd (bird), ' ' mach (much), ' '
san (son), ' ' fádhr (father), ' '
fish (fish), ' ' shúgr (sugar), ' '
brádhr (brother), ' ' tï (tea), ' '
tïchr (teacher), ' ' mën (man), ' '
kófi (coffee), ' '

'ROOTS [STEMS] OF VERBS'

'Transitional English (English)', 'Your language' 'Transitional English (English)', 'Your language'
du (do), ' ' sï (see), ' '
meyk (make), ' ' frgét (forget), ' '

'THE INFINITIVE: In TE the infinitive also serves, without change, for the conjugated personalized forms in the present tense: hëv, (have), ' ' ; kech (catch), ' ' ; meyk (make), ' ' ; drink (drink), ' ' ; frgét (forget), ' ' .'

'THE INFINITIVE can be preceded by the preposition tu (to) and connected to the verb by an underline: tu_dú (to do), ' ' ; tu_hëv (to have), ' ' ; tu_méyk (to make), ' ' , etc.'

'SOUNDS: With the exception of the digraphs, each letter in TE has but one sound value. Here are some tips for the production of certain sounds, but it is important to remember that English has no specific rules for word accentuation and, like the tones in Chinese, in English the stress and/or durative accent needs to be learned along with each individual word. Often, the English word is monosyllabic and hence there is no problem with the stress accent, and in words of two syllables the accent is frequently found on the first syllable.'

'When the words are polysyllabic, more often than not the accent falls on the first syllable. Since the accentuation of each word needs to be learned with each separate word, in our text we will try to indicate the accent in every word of more than one syllable. Remember that the umlaut over a vowel indicates that the vowel is a long one.'

'WORD ORDER'

'Unlike many other languages, the word order in English and in TE is not flexible.'

'TE adheres to a strict word order in a sentence: SUBJECT-VERB-OBJECT. Ay stádi Inglish. (I study English.) ' ' . '

'STUDY AID (1-8)Study this first lesson with care. Then write the following exercises in TE using the TE alphabet presented in the lesson on page 1. You can check your answers with those found at the end of the lesson. As an aid, you will find the SE equivalent in parentheses,followed by a translation into your langauge. You are to translate your language into Transitional English with the help of the Standard English form in parenthesis.'



1. (Friend will-eat cereal.) 'Place here equivalent of learner's language.'
            'Example': Frend wil-ït sírial.

2. (I eated eggs Sunday.) ' '

3. (I eat eggs with salt and pepper.) ' '

4. (You will look for work Saturday.) ' '

'TRANSLATE THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES INTO YOUR LANGUAGE. (NOTICE THAT THE TRANSITIONAL ENGLISh IS FOLLOWED BY THE EQUIVALENT STANDARD ENGLISH ORTHOGRAPHY WITHIN PARENTHESES)':

5. Frend kámed tudéy. (Friend comed today.)
            'Example: in learner's language.'

6. Ay wil-luk for wrk. (I will look for work.)

7. Yu drink kófi with milk ënd shúgr. (You drink coffee with milk and sugar.)

8. Yu kámed from Slóvak Ripáblik, ay kámed from Méksiko. (You comed from the Slovak Republic, I comed from Mexico.)

'After writing these sentences, write out the exercises in the following section. If you do not understand something, do not hesitate to ask someone who knows English to help you out. Those who have a computer can send their questions to the authors by means of electronic mail [e-mail] to the address given at the beginning of these lessons, and also found at the end of this lesson.'

Space Shuttle

'EXERCISES -- LESSON ONE'

'Using the examples below, write the following sentences in Transitional English'.

'Examples': [Translator: The sentence below, within the single quotes, should be placed in the learner's own language.]

'The friends be in motel.'
(Friends be in motel.)
Frends in motél.

'Translator: translate following sentence into learner's language here.'
(I look for work.)
Ay luk for wrk.

'Notice that both the definite (the) and indefinite articles (a) are normally NOT used in Transitional English'.

'EXERCISES (1-18)':

'WRITE THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES IN TRANSITIONAL ENGLISH ORTHOGRAPHY':

1. 'Translation in learner's language to be found here.' (Hello, how be you?)

'Example' : Hélow, häw bï yu?

2. ' ' (Of-I name be John).

3. ' ' (Of-you name be Joe.)

4. ' ' (I come from Texas.)

5. ' ' (Originally, I be from Mexico.)

6. ' ' (I not speak English good.)

7. ' ' (I learn English.)

8. ' ' (When you comed here?)

9. ' ' (Today be Sunday;I comed Saturday morning.)

10. ' '(Today I eat only cereal, two pieces of toasted bread, and coffee with cream and sugar.)

11. ' ' (I do [the] same.) [The square brackets indicate that the word the is omitted in Transitional English.]

12. ' ' (I look for farm work. I be farmer.)

13. ' ' (Mexico be south of U.S.A.)

14. ' ' (Yesterday I eated in restaurant.)

15. ' ' (Tomorrow, I will-eat one scrambled egg.)

16. ' ' (Bye. Good luck.)

17. ' ' (Kentucky be good place.)

18. ' ' (You and I drink coffee with milk.)

'Remember that answers to the preceding exercise can be found below.'

'ANSWERS TO THE STUDY AID (1-8)'

1. Frend wil-ït sírial.

2. Ay ïted egs Sándey.

3. Ay ït egs with solt ënd pépr.

4. Yu wil-luk for wrk Sétrdey.

'ANSWERS CONTINUED'

5. '[Translator: translate in your, or in the learner's, language, if they are the same.]'

6. ' '

7. ' '

8. ' '

'ANSWERS TO EXERCISES (1-18)':
1. Hélow, häw bï yu?
2. Av-ay neym bï ¥än.
3. Av yu neym bï ¥ow.
4. Ay kam from Texas [Téksûs].
5. Orí¥ûnli, ay bï from Mexico [Méksiko].
6. Ay nat spïk Ínglish gud.
7. Ay lrn Ínglish.
8. Wen yu kámed hïr?
9. Tudéy bï Sándey. Ay kámed Sétrdey mórning.
10. Tudéy ay ït ónli sírial, tu píses av tówsted bred, ënd kófi with krïm ënd shúgr.
11. Ay du seym.
12. Ay luk for farm wrk. Ay bï fármr.
13. Mexico bï sawth av U.S.A.
14. Yéstrdey ay ïted in réstrant.
15. Tum´row ay wil ït wan skrëmbled eg.
16. Bay. Gud lak.
17. Kentucky bï gud pleys.
18. Yu ënd ay drink kófi with milk.

'NUMBERS AND COLORS'

'At this stage you can learn some NUMBERS and COLORS. In Transitional English, the numbers, as all other adjectives, precede the nouns to which they refer, or those that they describe.'

0 zíro (zero) 17 sevntïn, 'or' wan-seven
1 wan (one) 18 eytïn, 'or' wan-eyt
2 tu (two) 19 nayntïn, 'or' wan-nayn
3 thri (three) 20 túti, 'or' twénti 'or' tu-zíro
4 for (four) 21 túti-wan, 'or' twénti-wan, 'or' tu-wan
5 fayv (five) 22 túti-tu, 'or' twénti-tu, 'or' tu-tu
6 siks (six) etc.
7 sévn (seven) 30 thríti, 'or' thr'ti, 'or' thri-zíro
8 eyt (eight) 31 thríti-wan, 'or' thr' ti-wan, 'or' thri-wan
9 nayn (nine) 40 fórti, 'or' for-zíro
10 ten (ten), 'or' wan-zíro 41 fórti-wan, 'or' for-wan
11 wantïn, 'or' ilévn, 'or' wan-wan 50 fáyvti, 'or' fífti, 'or' fayv-zíro
12 tutïn, 'or' twelv, 'or' wan-tu 60 síksti, 'or' siks-zíro
13 thritïn, 'or' thrtïn, 'or' wan-thri etc.
14 fortïn, 'or' wan-for 100 wan-hándrd (one hundred), 'or' wan-zíro-zíro
15 fayvtïn, 'or' fiftïn, 'or' wan-fayv 1,000 wan-tháwzûnd (one thousand), 'or' wan-zíro-zíro-zíro, 'or' ten-zíro-zíro
16 sikstïn, 'or' wan-siks 1,000,000 wan-mílyûn

C O L O R S                   Disney Characters

red = (red), ' ' pr' pl = (purple), ' '
órûn¥ = (orange), ' '     wayt = (white), ' '
yélow = (yellow), ' ' blëk = (black), ' '
grïn = (green), ' ' grey = (gray), ' '
blü = (blue), ' ' brawn = (brown), ' '

'The words that are used as adjectives are placed before the noun that they modify: wayt milk--' ' , brawn kófi--' ' , gud tïchr--' .'

'TELLING TIME': Wat taym bï it? (What time be it?) ' '
It bï nayn o' klak, 35 mínûts, 10 sékûnds. (It be nine o' clock, 35 minutes, 10 seconds.) ' '


'DAYS OF THE WEEK'

Sándey (Sunday), ' ' Thr'zdey (Thursday), ' '
Mándey (Monday), ' ' Fráydey (Friday), ' '
Túzdey (Tuesday), ' ' Sétrdey (Saturday), ' '
Wénzdey (Wednesday), ' '

'MONTHS OF THE YEAR'

¥ényueri (January), ' ' ¥uláy (July), ' '
Fébrueri (February), ' ' Ógûst (August), ' '
March (March), ' ' Siptémbr (September), ' '
Éyprûl (April), ' ' Aktóbr (October), ' '
Mey (May), ' ' Novémbr (November), ' '
¥ün (June), ' ' Disémbr (December), ' '

'EXERCISE'

Wat bï tudéy? (What be today?) ' ?'
Tudéy bï Fráydey, Disémbr 2, 1994. (Today be Friday, December 2, 1994.) ' .'



'You have now been exposed to about one-fourth of the grammar you need to know in Transitional English to be able to communicate in the language. Under Standard English instruction you would require a great deal more time in order to learn this much of the English language.'

'By the time you reach Lesson Ten you will have been exposed to rather sophisticated English which can be heard and used around the world.'

'If you have any difficulties with this and later lessons, please seek the help of anyone who knows English and have him help you get in touch with the authors of Transitional English at the following e-mail address': lihani.prof@prodigy.net, or at: globlec@pop.uky.edu.


Click here in order to obtain additional online information about English and other languages courtesy of Dr. Michael C. Martin.

'As you can see below, you can access the entire vocabulary of all the lessons.'

Click here for the Transitional English to Standard English and 'Your language' vocabulary. ('Translate here the preceding sentence into your language'.) Click here for the Standard English to Transitional English and 'Your language' vocabulary. ('Translate here the preceding sentence into your language.') Click here for 'Your language' to Transitional English and Standard English vocabulary. ('Translate here the preceding sentence into your language'.)


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Last revised on 22 October 2003