'Lesson Two'


{Translator, please recall that wherever you find the single quotes (' '), they are to be filled in with words from the language of the learners who are studying Transitional English.}


'Remember that the function of a word is determined by its position with respect to the verb. If the noun precedes a verb, then it acts as the subject, and if it follows the verb, then it serves as its object.'

San ('singular') ït ('present') séndwich ('singular')
--(E)S ('plural') --ED ('past') --(E)S ('plural')
WIL-ït ('future')'
' '


'A word that describes, such as `gud', is an ADJECTIVE. In TRANSITIONAL ENGLISH the posiition of the adjective is normally before the noun it modifies. Consider the following examples: gud kófi (good coffee) ` '; gud tï (good tea), ` ', [adjective: gud, (good) ` '.'

`English is differentSydney Harbor, Australia from many other languages in that the adjectives do not reflect the singular or plural form of the noun. The adjectives remain unchanged with regards to these qualities. The adjective also remains unchanged even when it serves either the function of a subject or the object in a sentence.'


Gud mën wil-hëv gud fémli.
(A good man will have a good family.)
' ' ' ' ' .'
Gud mëns wil-hëv gud fémlis.
(Good men[s] will have good families.)
' ' ' ' ' .'

`In each of the examples above, the adjective gud remains in the same form for all cases.'


'Please learn the words given in each lesson by reading each one aloud until you can repeat it from memory, and then do the same for each of the words seperately. Then the dialogue should be learned by heart as it appears in the lesson.'

ánkls (uncles), n. pl. ' '
bárow (borrow), v. ' '
báses (buses), n. pl. ' '
bay (buy), v. ' '
bédrums (bedrooms), n. pl.' '
bënk (bank), n. ' '
bëths (baths), n. pl. ' '
brádhr (brother), n. ' '
buks (books), n. pl. ' '
chek (check), n. ' '
chrch (church), n. ' '
dhër (there), adv. ' '
dhet (that), adj. sing. and pl. ' '
drag stör (drug store), n. ' '
els (else), adj. ' '
ënts (aunts), n. pl. ' '
fádhr (father), n. ' '
faynd (find), v. ' '
fëmli (family), n. ' '
fri (free), adj. ' '
Gäd (God), p.n. ' '
get (get), v. ' '
grëndfádhr (grandfather), n. ' '
grëndmádhr (grandmother), n. ' '
háspitl (hospital), n. ' '
haws (house), n. ' '
háy¥ïn (hygiene), n. ' '
hay¥ïnik (hygienic), adj. ' '
help (help), n. ' '
kärs (cars), n. pl. ' '
kësh (cash), v. ' '
Key-mart (K-mart), p.n. ' '
kíchn (kitchen), n. ' '
láki (lucky), adj. ' '
láybreri (library), n. ' '
lëmps (lamps), n.pl. ' '
létrs (letters), n. pl. ' '
mádhr (mother), n. ' '
máni (money), n. ' '
médisn (medicine), n. ' '
mégazïns (magazines), n. pl. ' '
naw (now), adv. ' '
néybrhud (neighborhood), n. ' '
péki¥es (packages), n. pl. ' '
post ófis (post office), n. ' '
réstrant (restaurant), n. ' '
rum (room), n. ' '
send (send), v. ' '
sik (sick), adj. ' '
sístr (sister), n. ' '
skül (school), n. ' '
stör (store), n. ' '
strïts (streets), n.pl. ' '
súprmarket (supermarket), n. ' '
thing (thing), n. ' '
trïs (trees), n. pl. ' '
Wól*Mart (Wal*Mart), p.n. ' '
wr'ship (worship), v. ' '
yärd (yard), n. ' '

Fádhr.--Wat yu faynd in av-yu [yu's] néybrhud? (What you find in of-you neighborhood?)' ?'
San.--Wel, for wan thing dhër bï skül in av-ay [ay's] néybrhud. (Well, for one thing, there be school in of-I neighborhood.)' .'
Fádhr.--Ënd wat els? (And what else?)' ?'
San.--Dhër bï bënk, láybreri, post ófis, súprmarket, drag stör, háspitl, réstrant, Key-mart, Wól*Mart, chrch. (There be bank, library, post office, supermarket, drug store, hospital, restaurant, K-mart, Wal*Mart, church.)' .'
Fádhr.--Véri gud. Wër yu go kësh chek or bárow máni? (Very good. Where you go [to] cash check or borrow money?)' ?'
San.--Tu bënk. (To bank.)' .'
Fádhr.--Wat yu faynd in láybreri? (What you find in library?)' ?]
San.--Buks ënd mégazïns dhet yu bárow fri. (Books and magazines that you borrow free.)' .'
Fádhr.--Wër yu go send létrs or péki¥es tu av-yu frends? (Where you go send letters or packages to of-you friends?)' ?'
San.--Ay go tu post ófis. (I go to post office.)' .'
Fádhr.--Wër yu go bay médisn ënd hay¥ïnik guds. (Where you go [to] buy medicine and hygienic goods?)' .'
San.--Tu drag stör. (Tu drug store.)' .'
Fádhr.--Gud. Naw, wër yu go bäy füd? (Good. Now, where you go buy food?' ?'
San.--Tu súprmarket. (To supermarket.)' .'
Fádhr.--Wër yu go get help wen yu bï sik? (Where you go get help when you be sick?)' ?'
San.--Tu háspitl. (To hospital.)' '
Fádhr.--Wër yu bäy lëmps, things for kíchn, for haws ënd for yärd wrk? ( Where you buy lamps, things for kitchen, for house and for yard work?' ?'
San.--Key-mart or Wól*Mart. (K-mart or Wal*Mart.)' .'
Fádhr.--Ënd wër yu go wrship av-yu Gäd? (And where you go worship of-you God?' ?'
San.--Tu chrch. (To church.)' .'
Fádhr.--Wat els yu faynd in av-yu néybrhud? (What else you find in of-you neighborhood?' ?'
San.--Strïts, kärs, báses, trïs, háwses, frends, fëmlis. (Streets, cars, buses, trees, houses, friends, families.)' .'
Fádhr.--Wat bï fëmli? (What be family?)' ?'
San.--Fádhr, mádhr, sístr, brádhr, grëndfádhr, grëndmádhr, ánkls, ënd ënts. (Father, mother, sister, brother, grandfather, grandmother, uncles, and aunts.)' .'
Fádhr.--Wat rums bï in av-yu [yu's] haws? (What rooms be in of you [you's] house?)' ?'
San.--In av-ay [ay's] haws wi hëv kíchn, líving rum, fëmli rum, dáyning rum, thri bédrums, tu bëths. (In of-I house we have kitchen, living room, family room, dining room, three bedrooms, two baths.)' .'
Fádhr.--Yu gud boy. Ay bï láki hëv yu for san. (You good boy. I be lucky have you for son.) ' .'

Passenger Jet


byútifl - ' ' házbûnd - ' ' lav - ' '
big - ' ' wótr - ' ' wösh - ' '
nyu - ' ' shap - ' ' ësk - ' '
hélthi - ' ' lémûneyd - ' ' >wër - ' '
dray - ' ' péypr - ' ' mït - ' '
wörm - ' ' pen - ' ' wrayt - ' '
kap - ' ' strït - ' '
ëdrûs - ' ' évnyu - ' '
télûfown - ' ' námbr - ' '
éria - ' ' kowd - ' '

'When it's necessary to indicateMacchu Picchu, Peru the length of a vowel, there will be two dots above it. Compare meet ` ' and meat ` ' (both words containing a long vowel ï [mït], with mit ` ' [mit] (that has a short i). For the stress accent we use the sign ['] to indicate the accented vowel, or to indicate the accented r'. We need to stress here that the accentuation in a word, along with the long vowels therein, need to be learned in each word separately, and this is done best by having a native speaker of English illustrate their pronunciation. There are as yet no hard and fast rules in English for helping to learn accentuation.'


('The answers are found towards the end of the lesson.')


('With the sentences in your language, as a helpful guide within the parentheses, you will also find their equivalents in normal English.')

1.' .' (Healthy boy drink warm milk.)

2. ' .' (I buy medicines and hygienic things in drug store.)

3. ' .' (In of-I [I's] house we have kitchen, living room, family room, dining room, three bedrooms, and two baths.)

4. ' .' (I go in car to supermarket buy food.)


'adj. noun' 'adj. noun'
hélthi boy ('sing.') drink ('pres.') wörm milk. ('sing.')
hélthi boys ('pl.') drínked ('past') wörm milks. ('pl.')
wil-drink ('fut.')

'NEGATION: 'NAT (not) placed before an adjective or a noun indicates a negation, but it can also indicate the opposite quality of a word if it is joined to it.'

LÖNG = ' ' NATLÖNG = ' '
TÖL = ' ' NATTÖL = ' '
gud = (good), ' ' natgúd = (bad), ' '
klïn = (clean), ' ' natklïn = (dirty), ' '
hélthi = (healthy), ' ' nathélthi = (sick, ill), ' '
lav = (love), ' ' natláv = (hate), ' '
frend = (friend), ' ' natfrénd = (enemy), ' '
wörm = (warm), ' ' natwörm = (cold), ' '

'EXERCISES (5-10)'

`Translate the following sentences from your language into Transitional English. As help to you, we provide the normal English spelling version as well.'

5. ' .' (Boy be nothealthy [sick].)

6. ' .' (Father speak with son.)

7. ' .' (There not be post office in of-I [I's] neighborhood.)

8. ' .' (Grandmother and mother not go to church this morning.)

9. ' .' (Not good boy not go to school.)

10. ' .' (I not drink notwarm [cold] coffee.)

`When the word NAT (NOT) is placed before any verb, it makes that verb negative, representing an action that does not happen, has not happend, and will not happen. NAT HËV (not have) ` '; NAT MEYK (not make) ` '; NAT DU (not do) ` ' .'


`We present below the personal pronouns with the verb TU_BI (to be), ' '. ALL THE VERBS OF TRANSITIONAL ENGLISH FOLLOW THIS PATTERN.'

'In Standard English the infinitive is usually accompanied by the preposition (to) [tu], as in (to be) [tu_bï], but in Transitional English it is preferable to avoid using the prefix [tu], and the infinitive becomes identical to its root [bï] ' '. If we find it necessary to prefix the preposition to the verb, then we connect it to the verb by means of an underline: tu_bï.'

'THE PRESENT TENSE:         The verb bï (to be)'

'Standard English' 'TE' 'Your language'
I am ay bï ' '
you are yu bï ' '
he is hi bï ' '
she is shi bï ' '
it is it bï ' '
>we are wi bï ' '
>you are yu bï ' '
they are >dhey bï ' '

BÏ - 'is the equivalent of (to be) which in {translator's language is' '}. This form of the infinitive also serves in Transitional English as the conjugated, personalized verb form with all the personal pronouns in the present tense.'

'The words in Transitional English are pronounced in exactly the same manner as in Standard English. The Transitional English pronunciation in the TE alphabet is followed generally by Standard English orthography within parentheses. The words within single quotation marks represent the equivalents in the learners'own languages. They are left blank here, so that this text can be adapted to any language simply by having a knowledgeable person fill in the appropriate equivalents within the indicated parentheses, and thus make this text available to others for learning English quickly and easily.'

        shi (she) ' '
        it (it) ' '
        yu (you) ' '


'Now that we have the necesssary preonouns':

ay       yu       hi       shi       it       wi       yu       dhey

'we can form the possessive adjectives by prefixing the preposition av (of) ' ' joined with the appropriate pronoun with a hyphen. An alternative form of the possessive adjective is constructed by using the pronoun and simply adding a suffix of an apostrophe and s to it: ('s):'

av-ay av-yu av-hi av-shi av-it >av-wi av-yu av-dhey
ay's yu's hi's shi's it's wi's yu's dhey's
(my) (your) (his) (her) (its) (our) (your) (their)
' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' '


'The same prepositional prefix used above av- (of) ` ' is also used to express possession for nouns: av boy buk (the boy's book), ` '; av-John book (John's book); ` '. The ALTERNATE form [with apostrophe and s = 's] is also used with nouns in TE, just as in SE: boy's buk (boy's book), ' '; ¥än's buk (John's book),'

'EXERCISES (11-24)'

'Below, you will see sentences in your own language followed by their equivalents within parentheses in SE orthography. Using the latter as an aid, translate the sentences in your language into Transitional English. Then check your answers with those found on page 22.'

11. ' .' (Sister cleaned house today.) Example: Sístr klïned haws tudéy.

12. ' .' (We nat have sugar.) Example: Wi nat hëv shúgr.

13. ' .' (Please, of-I [I's] son, give to I cream and sugar for of-I [I's] coffee.

14. ' .' (We go to bank cash check. We need much money.)

15. ' .' (When we be healthy, we not go to hospital. When we be sick, we need medicine.)

16. ' .' (American girl love Mexican boy.)

17. ' .' (They live and work in Lexington.)

18. ' ?' (What be of-they address? Where they live?

19. ' .' (Of-they [They's] address be 7204 Hope Avenue. They live in of-we [we's] neighborhood.)

20. ' ?' (You live here? What be of-you [you's] address?)

21. ' .' (Of-I [I's] address be 312 Hope Avenue, in of-they same neighborhood.)

22. ' ?' You have telephone? What be of-it [it's] number?

23. ' .' (Of-I [I's] telephone number be area 123/ 456-7890.

24. ' .' (Thank you very much. Good luck. See you tomorrow morning.)

'ANSWERS to Exercises (1-24)'

1. Hélthi boy drink wörm milk.
2. Ay bay médisns ënd hay¥ïnik things in drag stör.
3. In av-ay [ay's] haws wi hëv kíchn, líving rum, fëmli rum, dáyning rum, thri bédrums, ënd tu bëths.
4. Ay go in kär tu súprmarket bay füd.
5. Boy bï nat hélthi. [Boy bï sik.]
6. Fádhr spïk with san.
7. Dhër nat bï post ófis in av-ay [ay's] néybrhud.
8. Grëndmádhr ënd mádhr nat go tu chrch dhis mórning.
9. Nat gud boy nat go tu skül.
10. Ay nat drink natwörm [kold] kófi.
11. Sístr klïned haws tudéy.
12. Wi nat hëv shúgr.
13. Plïz, av-ay [ay's] san, giv tu-ay krïm ënd shúgr for av-ay [ay's] kófi.
14. Wi go tu bënk kësh chek. Wi nïd mach máni.
15. Wen wi bï hélthi, we nat go tu háspitl.
16. Amérikûn grl lav Méksikûn boy.
17. Dhey liv ënd wrk in Lexington.
18. Wat bï av-dhey [dhey's] ëdrûs? Wër dhey liv?
19. Av-dhey [dhey's] ëdrûs bï 7204 Hop Évnyu. Dhey liv in av-wi [wi's] néybrhud.
20. Yu liv hïr? Wat bï av-yu [yu's] ëdrûs?
21. Av-ay [ay's] ëdrûs bï 312 Hop Évnyu in av-dhey [dhey's] seym néybrhud.
22. Yu hëv télûfown? Wat bï av-it [it's] námbr?
23. Av-ay [ay's] télûfown námbr bï éria 123/ 456-7890.
24. Thenk yu véri mach. Gud lak. Sï yu tumárow mórning.

Click here for the Transitional English to Standard English and 'Your language' vocabulary. ('Translate the preceding sentence into your language'.) Click here for the Standard English to Transitional English and 'Your language' vocabulary. ('Translate the preceding sentence into your language.') Click here for 'Your language' to Transitional English and Standard English vocabulary. ('Translate the preceding sentence into your language'.)


Last revised on 22 October 2003