'TRANSITIONAL ENGLISH FOR EVERYONE: TRANSLATORS' WORKING TEXT FOR ALL LANGUAGES'


'Lesson Three'

'CONTENTS'

'REVIEW'

'Let's review some of the things that were learned in the preceding lessons.'

'SUBJECT, THING(S)' 'ACTION, VERB(S)' 'OBJECT, THING(S)'
'Adj.' 'Noun' 'Adj.' 'Noun'
Gud san ('sing.') ït ('present') fri sëndwich. ('sing.')
--- ---(E)S ('pl.') ---ED ('past') -- ---(E)S ('pl.')
WIL-ït ('fut.')

`Please, recall that the plural ending -es is added to the noun if in the singular, the noun ends in anyone of these six sibilants: ch,dzh=¥, s,z, sh, [there is no noun with this ending, zh]: pïch, pïches, bri¥, bri¥es, pïs, pïses, nöz, nözes, push, pushes. In these cases the -es, being unaccented, is frequently pronounced as -ûs.'

`EXAMPLES OF IMPORTANCE OF WORD ORDER':

Av-ay (Ay's) fádhr --- klïn --- av-wi (wi's) haws.
' .'
Av-hi (Hi's) sístrs --- sïed --- av-yu (yu's) brádhrs.
' .'

`The sentences should be written in the word order seen above: subject-verb-object. This is the most frequent sequence in English, and it is much easier to learn just this one word order for basic communication.'

'It is important to remember that the sintax, in other words, the word order in a sentence, is what reveals the function of each word therein. Notice the examples that follow.'

'EXERCISES (1-2). ANSWER a) and b) of both numbers 1 and 2 in your language with reference to the two sentences.'

1) Av-yu brádhr sïed av-wi sístrs.
        a) WHO WAS THE ONE SEEING? ______________________________
        b) WHO WAS SEEN? ______________________________

2) Av-wi sístr sïed av-yu brádhrs.
        a) WHO WAS THE ONE SEEING? ______________________________
        b) WHO WAS SEEN? ______________________________

'The answers are different. You can see the reason why in these lessons we stick to the basic sequence of words: SUBJECT---VERB---OBJECT.'


Popcorn Machine

'VOKÉBYULERI (VOCABULARY) 'YOUR LANGUAGE EQUIVALENT' (1)'

klös (clothes), n. ' '
hët (hat), n. ' '
këp (cap), n. ' '
pënts (pants), n. pl. ' '
säks (socks), n. pl. ' '
shrt (shirt), n. ' '
shüs (shoes), n. pl. ' '
täy (tie), n. ' '

PARTS AV BÁDI (PARTS OF BODY), ' '

arm (arm), n. ' '
äys (eyes), n. pl. ' '
bïrd (beard), n. ' '
chest (chest), n. ' '
chïk (cheek), n. ' '
chin (chin), n. ' '
élbow (elbow), n. ' '
fíngr (finger), n. ' '
fut (foot), n. ' '
glëses (glasses), n. pl. ' '
hed (head), n. ' '
hënd (hand), n. ' '
leg (leg), n. ' '
lips (lips), n. pl. ' '
mawth (mouth), n. ' '
nek (neck), n. ' '
neyl (nail), n. ' '
nï (knee), n. ' '
nöz (nose), n. ' '
shóldr (shoulder), n. ' '
stámûk (stomach), n. ' '
tö (toe), n. ' '
tüth (tooth), n. ' '

ÁDHR WRDS (OTHER WORDS), ' '

agén (again), adv. ' '
arm (arm), n. ' '
awt (out), prep. ' '
baks (box), n. ' '
bay (buy), v. ' '
biköz (because), conj. ' '
bröd (broad), adj. ' '
dhey (they, them), pron. ' '
drayv (drive), v. ' '
dres (dress), n. ' '
fëstr (faster), adj. ' '
házbûnd (husband), n. ' '
help (help), n. ' '
kam (come), v. ' '
kär (car), n. ' '
klrk (clerk), n. ' '
klös (clothes), n. ' '
klóthing (clothing), n. ' '
kost (cost), n. ' '
leg (leg), n. ' '
löng (long), adj. ' '
mach (much), adj. ' '
mey (may), v. ' '
möl (mall), n. ' '
nïd (need), v. ' '
nyu (new), adj. ' '
park (park), n. ' '
sayz (size), n. ' '
short (short), adj. ' '
sï (see), v. ' '
stör (store), n. ' '
sut (suit), n. ' '
teyk (take), v. ' '
töl (tall), adj. ' '
véri wel (very well), fr. ' '
wayf (wife), n. ' '
wayt (white), adj. ' '
wër (wear), v. ' '
wër awt (wear out), v. ' '
wil-put (will put), v. ' '
wök (walk), v. ' '
wud-layk (would like), v. ' '
wúmûn (woman), n. ' '
yu's (you's, your), adj. pos. '


DÁYALOG (DIALOGUE) 'TITLE'
Házbûnd.--Ay sï yu's byútifl dres bï wëred awt. Yu nïd bay nyu wan. (I see you's beautiful dress be weared out. You need buy new one.) ' .'
Wayf.--Ay bï glëd yu sey dhet, biköz ay nïd nyu dres, ënd yu nïd nyu sut. (I be glad you say that because I need new dress, and you need new suit.) ' .'
Házbûnd.--Gud. Wi go tu möl ënd bay nyu klös. (Good. We go to mall and buy new clothes.) ' .'
Wayf.--Wi wök, or wi drayv? (We walk, or we drive?) ' ?'
Hazbûnd.--It bï fëstr if wi drayv. (It be faster if we drive.) ' .'
Wayf.--Okey. Wi drayv kär ënd park ët möl. (OK. We drive car and park at [the] mall.) ' .'
*** ËT MÖL IN KLÓTHING STÖR (AT MALL IN CLOTHING STORE) *** *** 'YOUR LANGUAGE' ***
Klrk.--Mey ay help yu? (May I help you.) ' ?'
Wayf.--Yes. Ay wud-layk bay red dres. Ënd házbûnd wud layk sï blü sut. (Yes, I would like [to] buy a red dress. And husband would like [to] see [a] blue suit.) ' .'
Klrk.--Wat sayz yu wër? (What size you wear?) ' ?'
Wayf.--Ay wër dres in sayz ten-löng. Av-ay házbûnd wër sayz 40-short. Hi bï short. Ay bï töl. Ay bï töl wúmûn--löng legs, löng arms. (I wear dress in size ten-long. Of-I husband wear size 40-short. He be short. I be tall. I be tall woman--long legs, long arms.) ' .'
Klrk.--Véri wel. Hïr dhey bï. (Very well. Here they be.) ' .'
Házbûnd.--Ay nïd sut with bröd shóldrs, bat short legs ënd short arms. Häw mach dres ënd sut kost?(I need [a] suit with broad shoulders, but short legs and short arms. How much dress and suit cost?) ' ?'
Klrk.--Nat mach. Wan hándrd dálrs for dres, wan hándrd fáyvti for sut. (Not much. One hundred dollars for [the] dress, one hundred fifty for [the] suit.) ' .'
Wayf.--Gud, wi teyk dhey. (Good we take they.) ' .'
Klrk.--Gud. Ay wil put dhey in baks for yu. Thenk yu. Kam agén. (Good. I will put them in [a] box for you. Thank you. Come again.) ' .'

Space Walk

'VOKÉBYULERI (VOCABULARY) 'YOUR LANGUAGE' (2)'

'Only these special endings exist in TE: Verbs take -ed for the past tense, and the prefix wil- for the future. For the nouns the -s is added to form the plural.'
'NOUNS' 'VERBS [Infinitives]' 'ADJECTIVES'
áwr - (hour), ' ' weyt - (to wait for), ' ' wayt - (white), ' '
yïr - (year), ' ' ësk - (to ask a question), ' ' blü - (blue), ' '
mórning - (morning), ' ' sï - (to see), ' ' brawn - (brown), ' '
mínût - (minute), ' ' rikwést - (to ask for), ' ' yélow - (yellow), ' '
nayt - (night), ' ' drayv - (to drive), ' ' grey - (gray), ' '
wïk - (week), ' ' rispánd - (to answer), ' ' blëk - (black), ' '
dey - (day), ' ' wër - (to wear), ' ' red - (red), ' '
ïvning - (evening), ' ' liv - (to be alive), ' ' grïn - (green), ' '

'THE ADVERBS are like the adjectives, but instead of describing nouns, the adverbs describe verbs, adjectives or other adverbs. Normally, the adverbs answer the questions: HÄW (HOW?) ` ?' WEN (WHEN?) ` ?' WER (WHERE?) ` ?' WAY (WHY) ` ?'

The adverbs normally end in -li.'

`The basic meaning of a word can be used in different ways simply by changing its ending.'

Slow = (slow), 'lenta'   +   -li = (slowly), ' '

Slówli = (slowly), 'lentamente'; Kär ran slówli. ' .'

Slówli = (slowly), 'lentamente'; Shi wök slówli. ' .'

'The adverbs normally follow the word they modify. Thus: Shi wök slówli. - (She walk slowly.) ' .'

'In TE each vowel (a, e, i, o, u) is a nucleus of a syllable. Hence in TE `slówli' has two syllables: `slów-li'. Occasionally, the nucleus of a syllable can be an l (v.g. fl=(full)' ') or an r (v.gr. fr=(fur)' '):'

'REVIEW'

'REVIEW OF THE ENDINGS':

'SUBJECT = THING VERB ADVERB OBJECT = THING'
('ADJECTIVE) (NOUN) (ADJECTIVE) (NOUN')
Wayf ('sing.') drayv ('present') ---LI nyu kär ('sing.')
WayfS ('plural') --ED ('past') slówli nyu kärS ('plural')
WIL-drayv ('future')
' .'

'EXERCISES (3-7)' 'Write the folloiwng sentences in Transitional English: The Standard English orthography is also given here as an aid to your writing.'

3. (Of-I husband will-run in evening.) ' .'

4. (Of-we clerk asked, 'What size you wear?') ' ?'

5. (I like blue suit very much.) ' .'

6. (Of-I wife drive car slowly.) ' .'

7. (Of-we clothes be old. We need new dress and suit.) ' .'

'REVIEW OF NUMBERS: Like all other adjectives, the CARDINAL (regular) numbers do not agree with the gender nor number of the nouns they modify. And like other adjectives, the numerals also normally precede the nouns they describe.'

wan 1 thríti-wan; thr'ti-wan 31
tu 2 thríti-tu; thr'ti-tu 32
thri 3 ... ...
for 4 fórti 40
fayv 5 fáyvti; fífti 50
siks 6 síksti 60
sévn 7 sévnti 70
eyt 8 éyti 80
nayn 9 náynti 90
ten 10 wan hándrd 100
wantïn; ilévn 11 wan tháwzûnd 1000
tutïn; twelv 12 ... ...
thritïn; thrtïn 13 ... ...
fortïn 14 ... ..
fayvtïn; fiftïn 15 zíro 0
... ... ... ...
túti; twénti 20 wan poynt zíro 1.0
túti-wan; twénti-wan 21 zíro poynt wan 0.1
... ... zíro poynt zíro wan 0.01
thríti; thr'ti 30 etc.
wan tháwzûnd nayn hándrd náynti-nayn (nayntïn náynti-nayn)1999

'Unlike many other languages that use a comma to indicate decimals, Transitional English, like Standard English, employs a point.'

'An easier and more common form of giving numbers in EnglishLondon, England is to say each number separately: 10=wan zíro, 11=wan wan, 15=wan fayv, 20=tu zíro, 21=tu wan, 32=thri tu, etc. This form is especially used when giving address or telephone numbers; examples a) telephone: Area code 606/ 123-4567 = éria kowd siks zíro siks / wan tu thri - for fayv siks sévn; b) address: 7204 Hope Avenue = sévn tu zíro for Hop Évnyu.'

'The ORDINAL NUMBERS [those which indicate sequential order] take the ending -th: wanth boys wrayt, (The first boys write.) ` .''

Wanth 'or' frst (first), ' '; twéntith (twentieth), ' '; wánthli 'or' fr'stli (firstly*), ' '; tuth 'or' séknd (second), ' '; sévnti-wanth 'or' sévnti-frst (seventy-first), ' '; túthli 'or' sékndli(secondly), ' '; thrith 'or' thrd (third), ' '; hándrdth (hundredth), ' '; thríthli 'or' thr'dli (thirdly), ' '.

*'The numerical adverbial form is sometimes translated as follows: wánthli = (in the first place,) ` '; túthli = (in the second place,) ` ' etc.'

'EXERCISES (8-20).' 'Translate the following sentences into Transitional English. First we give the sentence in your language, followed by the form in Standard English orthography, as help with TE.'

8. 'Translation of sentence in learner's language goes here.' (She love he. He love she.)

9. ' .' (He love of-she sister.)

10. ' .' (He like drive car.)

11. ' .' (She love [the] sixth new dress.)

12. ' .' ([The] twoth (second) woman hate (nat lav) [the] oneth (first) man.)

13. ' .' (Husband and wife asked, onethly (firstly), for dress and suit.)

14. ' .' (Then they asked for price of clothes.)

15. ' .' (The clerk speak Transitional English to husband and wife.)

16. ' .' (The shop sell good clothes for tall woman and short man.)

17. ' .' (Sixty minutes be one hour.)

18. ' .' (Twenty-four hours be one day [and night].)

19. ' .' (Seven days be one week. [The] seventh day be Saturday.)

20. ' .' (The third day be Tuesday, the fourth day be Wednesday.)

'ANSWERS (1--20).'

1. a) Av-yu brádhr. b) Av-wi sístrs.
2. a) Av-wi sístr. b) Av-yu brádhrs.
3. Av-ay házbûnd wil-ran in ïvning.
4. Av-wi klrk ësked, 'Wat sayz yu wër?'
5. Ay layk blü sut véri mach.
6. Av-ay wayf drayv kär slówli.
7. Av-wi klows bï old. We nïd nyu dres ënd sut.
8. Shi lav hi. Hi lav shi.
9. Hi lav av-shi sístr.
10. Hi layk drayv kar.
11. Shi lav fayvth (fifth) nyu dres.
12. Tuth (séknd) wúmûn natláv wanth (frst) mën.
13. Házbûnd ënd wayf ësked for dres ënd sut.
14. Dhen dhey ësked for prays av klows.
15. Klrk spïk Trensíshnl Ínglish tu házbûnd ënd wayf.
16. Shap sel gud klös for töl wúmûn ënd short mën.
17. Síksti mínûts bï wan áwr.
18. Túti-for (Twénti-for) áwrs bï wan dey [ënd nayt].
19. Sévn deys bï wan wïk.
20. Thrith (thrd) boy bï av-ay tuth (séknd) san.

VOKÉBYULERI (VOCABULARY) 'YOUR LANGUAGE EQUIVALENT HERE (3)'

äys (eyes), n. ' ' layk (like), v. ' '
béybi (baby), n. ' ' layk (like), prep. ' '
én¥ûnïr (engineer), n. ' ' lav (love), v. ' '
ët (at), prep. ' ' luk (look), v. ' '
fët (fat), adj. ' ' místr (Mr.), n. ' '
grow (grow), v. ' ' mísûs (Mrs.), n. ' '

Pegasus

'EXERCISES (1-7). HERE ARE SOME SENTENCES IN TRANSITIONAL ENGLISH, WHICH SHOULD BE TRANSLATED INTO YOUR LANGUAGE. COMPARE YOUR ANSWERS TO THOSE THAT APPEAR BELOW.'

1. Mísûs Méri Smith hëv nyu béybi. Béybi neym bï ¥il Smith.

2. Béybi hëv blü äys, ënd it ït mach. It bï fët ënd luk layk Mr. Smith.

3. Av-it mádhr layk luk ët it. Shi lav it véri mach.

4. Mr. ënd Mrs. Smith lav av-dhey (dhey's) béybi.

5. Dhey hop it grow ap ënd bï en¥ûnïr layk Mrs. Smith.

'The sentences in your language that follow should be translated into Transitional English. As an aid they are also given in Standard English orthography.'

6. ' .' (We go to mall [to] buy clothes: [a] red dress for wife, and [a] blue suit for I.)

7. ' .' (There they have beautiful clothes, that not cost much.)

'ANSWERS (1-7).{ANSWERS (1-5)ARE TO BE PROVIDED BY TRANSLATOR IN HIS/HER LANGUAGE}'

1. ' .'
2. ' .'
3. ' .'
4. ' .'
5. ' .'
'ANSWERS IN TRANSITIONAL ENGLISH'
6. Wi go tu möl tu_bay klows: red dres for wayf, ënd blü sut for ay.
7. Dhër dhey hëv byútifl klows, dhet nat kost mach.

'(The imperative verb has no special form. It is the same as the infinitive, or as a verb in its present tense v.gr., ësk (ask). When a command is written, we only place an exclamation point [!] at the end of the command. In speech, on the other hand, a command is indicated by earnestness and raising the tone of the voice. This is what happens in most languages.) If you do not understand something, don't hesitate to ask questions of someone who may know the answer.'

VOKÉBYULERI (VOCABULARY) 'VOCABULARY IN YOUR LANGUAGE (4)'

Énûmls (Animals) ' ' Füds (Foods) ' '
kët (cat), n. ' ' bred (bread), n. ' '
dög (dog), n. ' ' bátr (butter), n. ' '
élûfûnt (elephant), n. ' ' milk (milk), n. ' '
táygr (tiger), n. ' ' vé¥tûbls (vegetables), n. ' '
láyûn (lion), n. ' ' tûméyto (tomato), n. ' '
krákûdayl (crocodile), n. ' ' kérût (carrot), n. ' '
maws (mouse), n. ' ' mït (meat), n. ' '
flay (fly), n. ' ' chïz (cheese), n. ' '
rët (rat), n. ' ' pïz (peas), n. pl. ' '
mánki (monkey), n. ' ' eg (egg), n. ' '
hors (horse), n. ' ' ëpl (apple), n. ' '
käw (cow), n. ' ' për (pear), n. ' '
shïp (sheep), n. ' ' banéna (banana), n. ' '
dánki (donkey), n. ' ' chéri (cherry), n. ' '
myül (mule), n. ' ' béri (berry), n. ' '
bérïs (berries), n. pl. ' '
hey (hay), n. ' '

'Study the sentences below and translate into your language.'

1. Wat énûmls bï dhër in zü?

' ?'

2. In zü wi sï mánkis, élûfûnts, táygrs, ënd láyûns.

' .'

3. Wat énûmls yu hëv ët hom?

' ?'

4. Ët hom wi hëv kët, dög, käw, ënd hors.

' .'

5. Wat kaynd füd énûmls ït?

' ?'

6. Kët ënd dög ït mït; hors ënd käw ït hey.

' .'

7. Maws layk chïz; kët layk milk.

' .'

8. Ay layk bred ënd bátr, ënd av-ay frend layk vé¥tûbls.

' .'

9. Dhet bï gud. Yu shud ólso ït vé¥tûbls, layk pïz, tûméytos, ënd fruts layk banénas, chérïs, ënd bérïs.

' .'

10. Shïps, mánkïs, ënd myüls nat layk láyûns.

' .'


Click here for the Transitional English to Standard English and 'Your language' vocabulary. ('Translate the preceding sentence into your language'.) Click here for the Standard English to Transitional English and 'Your language' vocabulary. ('Translate the preceding sentence into your language.') Click here for 'Your language' to Transitional English and Standard English vocabulary. ('Translate the preceding sentence into your language'.)


Taj Mahal, India

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Last revised on 22 October 2003