'TRANSITIONAL ENGLISH FOR EVERYONE: TRANSLATORS' WORKING TEXT FOR ALL LANGUAGES'


'Lesson Seven'

'CONTENTS'

'In this lesson we present the most common and important prefixes and suffixes, with examples.'

'The purpose of these affixes is to show how they can be combined with other words to form new ones. These affixes need not be learned at once, but you should have a good idea of how to use them in forming new words, and thereby learn to reduce the mass of vocabulary that one needs to have to communicate thoughts to others.'

'Since the English language is the result of the fusion of Germanic and Romance elements, it has an extraordinarily greater lexicon than the other languages of the Indo-European family. Consequently, English is the richest language in synonyms, whereby the same idea can be expressed in several different ways. English is also the language with most international words, which aids in its simplification process. The affixes of this lesson are another aspect of its tendency toward simplification.'

'THE PREFIXES'
an- (un-) 'produces a contrary meaning to the word to which it is attached: bilïvabl (believable, ' '), anbilïvabl (unbelievable, ' '); huk (to hook, ' '), anhúk (to unhook, ' ').'

dis- (dis-) 'is similar to an- (un-), indicating separation or undoing: asémbl (to assemble) ' ', disasémbl (disassemble) ' ', agrï (agree) ' ', disagrï (disagree) ' '.'

eks- (ex-) 'indicates a former condition: eksprézidûnt (ex-president) ' ', eksházbûnd (ex-husband) ' '.'

get (get) 'is a very versatile verb, which among other things means 'reach, acquire, obtain, receive,' and which can be combined with almost all prepositions, adjectives, adverbs and nouns in the language in order to indicate an action that approaches the meaning of the preposition, adjective, adverb or noun: get ap (get up) ' ', get dawn (get down) ' ', get fët (get fat) ' ', get awéy (get away) ' ', get gift (get gift) ' '.'

grup- (group-) 'signifies a group or collection of things: gruptíchrs (faculty), ' ', grupshïps (flock of sheep) ' ', grupbrds (flock of birds) ' ', gruppïpls (multitude) ' ', gruptrïs (woods, forest) ' ', grupbïs (swarm of bees) ' ', etc.'

nat- (not-) 'negates the idea that follows, and it can also function similar to an- or dis-, producing a opposite idea of the original meaning of the word to which it becomes attached: klowz (close) ' ', natklówz (open) ' ', rich (rich) ' ', natrích (poor) ' ', byútifl (beautiful) ' ', natbyútifl (ugly) ' ', pr'ti (pretty) ' ', natpr'ti (homely) ' '.'

mis- (mis-) 'to do something incorrectly: print (print) ' ', misprínt (misprint) ' ', reprizént (represent) ' ', misreprizént (misrepresent) ' '.'

ri- (re-) 'to repeat an action: kam (come) ' ', rikám (come back, return) ' ', print (print) ' ', riprínt (reprint) ' '.'

THE SUFFIXES

-abl, -ûbl (-able) Possibility:

-er, -r (-er) 'When joined to an adjective, it serves to form the comparative of the adjective, and is equal in sense to 'more'':

-est, -ûst (-est) 'Converts the adjective into a superlative form, equivalent to the meaning of 'most...'': Althugh it is written -est the ending may be heard with the neutral vowel -ûst:

-fl (-ful) 'Adjectival suffix which denotes fullness':

-i (-ey, -y) 'Diminutive which denotes affection':

-ing (-ing) 'A participial ending which converts the verb into an adjective or into a nound; while, when preceded by the verb , it produces the PROGRESSIVE TENSE which describes an action in progress:'

-ist (-ist) 'Profession or occupation':

- (-law) 'Indicates a relationship contracted by marriage':



'EXERCISES': 'Here you Spanish Flamenco Dancer have some words in Transitional English with their translations, and some new words which are formed with the above affixes (prefixes and suffixes). TRANSLATE THESE WORDS INTO YOUR OWN LANGUAGE. Give the closest meaning that you can think of to the meaning that you understand in Transitional English.'

  1. házbûnd: eksházbûnd.
  2. hors: hórsi, hórspleys.
  3. wörm: natwörm, wörmr.
  4. bï: grupbïs, bïpleys.

    Utilizing the prefixes and suffixes, translate the following words into Transitional English':

  5. 'to get up'
  6. 'to get a gift'
  7. 'swarm of bees'
  8. 'tool shed'

'ANSWERS':

  1. ' '
  2. ' '
  3. ' '
  4. ' '
  5. get ap
  6. get gift
  7. grupbïs
  8. tülpleys

'Some of the compound words in this lesson are not used frequently in speech, nor in writing, while others are used so much that they become just simple words.'


'WRITE OUT THE FOLLOWING EXERCISE':

    A. 'Translate the following words into your own language':

  1. byútifl
  2. misreprizént
  3. bilïvabl

    B. 'Translate the words of your language, with the help of those within brackets into Transitional English,':

  4. [biggest] ' '
  5. [disassemble] ' '
  6. [unbelievable] ' '
  7. [tallest] ' '

'ANSWERS': ('These or similar words.')

  1. ' '
  2. ' '
  3. ' '
  4. bígest
  5. disasémbl
  6. anbilïvabl
  7. tölest,          

'EXERCISES (*1-8). USE PREFIXES OR SUFFIXES IN ORDER TO FORM THE FOLLOWING WORDS IN TRANSITIONAL ENGLISH':

  1. (not clean) ' '
  2. (brother-in-law) ' '
  3. (get up) ' '
  4. (reprint) ' '
  5. (notpretty) ' '
  6. (get fat) ' '
  7. (get sick) ' '
  8. (sister-in-law) ' '

'ANSWERS (*1-8)'

  1. nat klïn
  2. brádhr-in-lö
  3. get ap
  4. riprínt
  5. natpr'ti
  6. get fët
  7. get sik
  8. sístr-in-lö

'WRITING LETTERS

'A friendly letter usually starts with an indication of place of origin, followed by the date, and the greeting. Then comes the body of the letter, and the letter customarily ends with the farewell, "Sinsïrli (Sincerely)." and the writer's name. Below is an example of one such letter.'


VOKÉBYULERI   (VOCABULARY)   'EQUIVALENT IN YOUR LANGUAGE'

agén (again), adv. ' '
Aktöbr (October), n. ' '
béysböl (baseball), n. ' '
bëskûtböl (basketball), n. ' '
born (born), v. 'llevado'; bïed born (beed born), v. ' '
dhet (that), pron. ' '
en¥ûnïring (engineering), n. ' '
ekspénses (expenses), n. pl. ' '
finish (finish), v. ' '
föl (fall), n. ' '
gr'lfrend (girl friend), n. ' '
help (help), v. ' '
Índia (India), p.n. ' '
ïvning (evening), n. ' '
kën (can), v. ' '
lëst (last), adj. ' '
létr (letter), n. ' '
mast (must), v. ' '
mïting (meeting), n. ' '
müvi (movie), n. ' '
naw (now), adv. ' '
pápyulr (popular), adj. ' '
pey (pay), v. ' '
pley (play), v. ' '
rïsûnt (recent), adj. ' '
säkr (soccer), n. ' '
sámr (summer), n. ' '
sámthing (something), pron. ' '
send (send), v. ' '
Sinsinëti (Cincinnati), p.n. ' '
sinsïrli (sincerely), adv. ' '
skül (school), n. ' '
sport (sport), n. ' '
sun (soon), adv. ' '
tel (tell), v. ' '
ténûs (tennis), n. ' '
Titanic=Taytënik (Titanic), p.n. ' '
vísit (visit), v. ' '
wach (watch), v. ' '
wïkend (weekend), n. ' '
yïr (year), n. ' '          


LÉTR (LETTER)

Cincinnati, Ohio
Aktöbr 31, 1998

Dïr Mayk,

     It bïed gud mïting yu hïr lëst yïr. Ënd ay láyked av-yu rísûnt létr, dhet yu sénded from Índia. Yu ésked dhet ay tel yu sámthing abáwt ay. Ay bïed born in Cincinnati in 1978. Naw ay go tu yunivr'siti. Ay stádi en¥ûnïring. Dyúring sámr ay wrk in kanstrákshn tu_help pey skül ekspénses.

     An wïkends ay layk pley säkr, ténûs, ënd béysböl. In föl ay layk pley bëskûtböl. Bëskûtböl bï véri pápyulr sport hïr. Sam ïvnings, ay wach télûvizhn. Bat, Fráydey ïvnings ay go with av-ay gr'lfrend sï múvi, layk "Titanic [Taytënik]."

     Yu ësk wen ay wil kam vísit yu in Índia. Ay wud layk du dhet sun, bat ay mast weyt antíl ay fínish yunivr'siti.

     Plïz wrayt tu ay ólso abáwt yu, ënd kam sï wi agén wen yu kën.

Sinsïrli,

Edward [Édwrd]


'Letter'

'{Translator: translation of the above letter goes here in your language, and that of your compatriots for whom you are preparing this text of Transitional English.}'


'EXERCISE': 'In Transitional English write a brief letter to a friend or a member of your family.'


Click here for the Transitional English to Standard English and 'Your language' vocabulary. ('Translate the preceding sentence into your language'.) Click here for the Standard English to Transitional English and 'Your language' vocabulary. ('Translate the preceding sentence into your language.') Click here for 'Your language' to Transitional English and Standard English vocabulary. ('Translate the preceding sentence into your language'.)


Plantation in Natchez, MS

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Last revised on 22 October 2003