'TRANSITIONAL ENGLISH FOR EVERYONE: TRANSLATORS' WORKING TEXT FOR ALL LANGUAGES'


'Lesson Eight'

'CONTENTS'

'Now it is time to learn a few endings of grammar and then you will be able to read selections in Transitional English. You already know the prefixes and suffixes of verbs: the ending --ed, and the prefix: wil--. In addition to these there is the CONDITIONAL TENSE expressed by the prefix wud--.'

          If ay wud-bï rich, ay wud-bï kûntént. (If I would be rich, I would be content.)

          ' .' (this describes a situation which is contrary to fact, because the individual is not rich.')

'The IMPERATIVE (command) is indicated simply by the infinitive of the verb. In writing it is followed by an exclamation paoint, while in speech by the demanding sound of the voice.'

Yu nat go tu múvi! Stey hom!
(You not go to movie! Stay home!)
' !'

'Finally, we have the present participles or gerunds. Mt. Matterhorn, Switzerland. A present participle is a verb form that ends in -ing, and serves as a verbal adjective. When the --ing form serves as a noun, it is called a gerund. (These words which are derived from verbs can serve as verbs, but also as ajectives, adverbs, or nouns.)'

'Examples':

'THE REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS'

'SELF is a reflexive singular pronoun, SELFS is the plural form.' 'The reflexive pronoun refers back to the subject of the verb.'

aysélf ' ' wisélfs ' '
yusélf ' ' yusélfs ' '
hisélf ' ' dheysélfs ' '
shisélf ' ' dheysélfs ' '
itsélf ' ' dheysélfs ' '

'EXAMPLES':

'At this point you can read easy stories taken from the world's popular folktales. Here is a version of the well known story of "Little Red Riding Hood".'

VOKÉBYULERI   (VOCABULARY)   'EQUIVALENT IN YOUR LANGUAGE'

ádhr (other), pron. ' '
agó (ago), adv. ' '
anádhr (another), pron. ' '
awéy (away), adv. ' '
äy (eye), n. ' '
bátr (butter), n. ' '
bëd (bad), adj. ' '
bëskût (basket), n. ' '
big (big), adj. ' '
brayt (bright), adj. ' '
cheyn¥ (change), v. ' '
¥amp (jump), v. ' '
dark (dark), adj. ' '
dífrnt (different), adj. ' '
dör (door), n. ' '
ëks (axe), n. ' '
end (end), n. ' '
ënsr (answer), v. ' '
féri (fairy), n. ' '
fil (fill), v. ' '
fórûst (forest), n. ' '
gárdn (garden), n. ' '
go awéy (go away), fr. ' '
grëndmádhr (grandmother), n. ' '
hag (hug), v. ' '
háni (honey), n. ' '
haws (house), n. ' '
helth (health), n. ' '
hëm (ham), n. ' '
hépi (happy), adj. ' '
hët (hat), n. ' '
hud (hood), n. ' '
hûri (hurry), v. ' '
ïvl (evil), adj. ' '
kamplïtli (completely), adv. ' '
kandíshn (condition), n. ' '
këch (catch), v. ' '
klawd (cloud), n. ' '
klïr (clear), adj. ' '
köl (call), v. ' '
kowt (coat), n. ' '
kray (cry), v. ' '
kúki (cookie), n. ' '
layt (light), n. ' '
léytr (later), prep. ' '
lítl (little), adj. ' '
Lítl Red Ráyding Hud (Little Red Riding Hood), p.p. ' '
mawth (mouth), n. ' '
näk (knock), v. ' '
nayt-gawn (night gown), n. ' '
nekst (next), adj. ' '
névr (never), adv. ' '
nowz (nose), n. ' '
okéy (okay), adv. ' '
órfûn (orphan), n. ' '
orí¥ûnl (original), adj. ' '
part (part), v. ' '
pïpl (people), n. ' '
pr'ti (pretty), adj. ' '
put (put), v. ' '
ran (run), v. ' '
rïzn (reason), n. ' '
sach (such), adv. ' '
sádûnli (suddenly), adv. ' '
san (sun), n. ' '
säyd (side), n. ' '
sel (sell), v. ' '
self (self), pron. ' '
séyfli (safely), adv. ' '
short-kat (short cut), n. ' '
sik (sick), adj. ' '
skäy (sky), n. ' '
smel (smell), v. ' '
start of (start off), fr. ' '
stóri (story), n. ' '
stréyn¥r (stranger), n. ' '
swïthart (sweetheart), n. ' '
täym (time), n. ' '
think (think), v. ' '
thru (through), prep. ' '
vé¥tûbl (vegetable), n. ' '
voys (voice), n. ' '
vr'zhn (version), n. ' '
wër (wear), v. ' '
wey (way), n. ' '
wíkûd (wicked), adj. ' '
wíspr (whisper), v. ' '
wök (walk), v. ' '
wrd (word), n. ' '
wud (wood), n. ' '
wúdsmën (woodsman), n. ' '
wulf (wolf), n. ' '

LÍTL   RED   RÁYDING   HUD

 

Hïr bï anádhr féri stóri, téled in ádhr wrds-- wrds dhet bï oltugédhr dífrnt from orí¥ûnl vr'zhn.

Long täym agö, dhër bïed lítl grl dhet líved with av-shí mádhr in lítl haws an e¥ av dark fórûst. Dhis lítl grl órfûn wëred lítl red kowt with lítl red hët, ënd for dhis rïzûn pïpl köled shi "Lítl Red Ráyding Hud." Wan mórning mádhr av Lítl Red Ráyding Hud köled shi ënd séyed:

"Lítl Red Ráyding Hud, hïr bï lítl bëskût with sam bred ënd bátr ënd shúgr kúkïs. Teyk dhis lítl bëskût tu haws av grëndmádhr, dhet liv an ádhr sayd av fórûst. Hûri, nat stap in fórûst, ënd ándr no kandíshns stap tök with stréyn¥rs!"

"Okéy, mádhr," énsred Lítl Red Ráyding Hud, ënd téyked lítl bëskût ënd stárted of.

An av-shi wey tu haws Little Red Riding Hood av grëndmádhr, Lítl Red Ráyding Hud mïted big, bëd wulf.

"Wel, wel, wel," séyed bëd wulf. "If it nat bï Lítl Red Ráyding Hud! Wër go pr'ti lítl grl with lítl bëskût?"

"Ay go tu av-ay grëndmádhr," énsred lítl grl. "Grëndmádhr bï sik in bed. Ay teyk tu shi sam bred, bátr ënd shúgr kúkïs."

"Ohó, hëv gud wök," séyed bëd wulf, bat hi thínked tu self, "Ay wil-teyk short-kat tu haws av grëndmádhr. Ay wil-këch ap with shi léytr, ënd dhen -- oh boy!"

So wíkûd wulf téyked short-kat, ënd wen hi ríched haws av grëndmádhr, hi pïked in av-shi wíndow ënd sïed dhet pür grëndmádhr léyed in av-shi bed. In flësh, dhis bëd wulf lïped an av-shi bed ënd ïted shi. Dhen hi púted an nayt-këp av grëndmádhr ënd av-shi nayt-gawn, ënd kr'led ap in av-shi bed. In lítl wayl, Lítl Red Ráyding Hud aráyved ët haws ënd rínged dör bel. "Kam in, swïthart," séyed wíkûd wulf disgáyzing av-hi voys. Lítl Red Ráyding Hud góed in ënd stënded bay bed av grëndmádhr.

"Oh, Grëndmádhr," kráyed lítl grl, "wat big äys yu hëv! Ay névr sïed sach big äys."

"Gúdr sï yu with, háni," wíspûred dhis bëd wulf, with ïvl smayl.

"Oh, Grëndmádhr, wat big nowz yu hëv. Ay névr sïed sach big nowz!"

"Gúdr smel yu with, háni," séyed wulf.

"Oh, Grëndmádhr, wat big mawth yu hëv! Ay névr sïed sach big mawth!"

"Gúdr tu_ït yu with!" Ët dhet, wulf ¥ámped awt av bed ënd bïed abáwt tu_ït Lítl Red Ráyding Hud, layk hi ïted grëndmádhr, wen sam wúdsmëns nïr dhër, hïred av-shi kray for help. Dhey hûried in, ënd with kats av-dhey ëkses, kat wulf ópûn. Awt kámed grëndmádhr, in gud helth ënd srpráyzed ët av-shi löng slïp.

Wen shi wéyked ap, grey klawds in skäy párted, ënd san sháyned agén, klïr ënd brayt, fíling rum with av-it [its] yélow layt.

Lítl Red Ráyding Hud ráned tu_hag av-shi grëndmádhr. Dhey ësked wúdsmëns tu_ït with dhey. Grëndmádhr hëved sam hëm, ënd sam vé¥tûbls from gárdûn. With bred ënd bátr ënd shúgr kúkïs in Lítl Red Ráyding Hud's bëskût, dhey hëved gud mïl. Ëftr dhey ïted, wúdsmëns góed awéy hépi, with big wulf's skin tu_sel.

Nekst täym Lítl Red Ráyding Hud góed tu av-shi grëndmádhr's haws, shi nat stáped in fórûst tu_tök with stréyn¥rs, bat hûried séyfli thru fórûst.


'EXERCISES'

'Answer the questions'.

  1. Wër mádhr sénded Lítl Red Ráyding Hud?
  2. Wat bïed in bëskût?
  3. Wër grëndmádhr liv?
  4. In fórûst, hu mïted Lítl Red Ráyding Hud?
  5. Hu ïted grëndmádhr?
  6. Wen Lítl Red Ráyding Hud kámed to haws av grëndmádhr, hu bïed in bed?
  7. Wat kaynd äys, nowz, ënd mawth hëved grëndmádhr?
  8. Hu bïed nïr grëndmádhr's haws?
  9. Hu hïred Lítl Red Ráyding Hud's kray for help?
  10. Hu kat wulf ópûn?
  11. Haw bïed grëndmádhr's helth naw?
  12. Wat ïted dhey?
  13. Wat wúdsmëns wil-sel?
  14. Nekst täym, Lítl Red Ráyding Hud go tu grëndmádhr's haws, shi wil-stap, or nat wil-stap in fórûst tök with stréyn¥rs?

'ANSWERS'
  1. Mádhr sénded Lítl Red Ráyding Hud tu grëndmádhr's haws.
  2. In bëskût bïed sam bred ënd bátr, ënd shúgr kúkïs.
  3. Grëndmádhr liv an ádhr sayd av fórûst.
  4. In fórûst, wulf mïted Lítl Red Ráyding Hud.
  5. Wulf ïted grëndmádhr.
  6. Wen Lítl Red Ráyding Hud kámed tu haws av grëndmádhr, wulf bïed in bed.
  7. Grëndmádhr hëved big äys, nowz, ënd mawth.
  8. Wudsmëns bïed nïr grëndmádhr's haws.
  9. Wudsmëns hïred Lítl Red Ráyding Hud's kray for help.
  10. Wudsmëns kat wulf ópûn.
  11. Grëndmádhr's helth bïed gud naw.
  12. Dhey ïted hëm, bátr, bred, ënd shúgr kúkïs.
  13. Wudsmëns wil-sel wulf's skin.
  14. Nekst taym Lítl Red Ráyding Hud go tu grëndmádhr's haws, shi nat wil-stap in fórûst tök with stréyn¥rs.


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Last revised on 22 October 2003