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Seed germination and stand establishment

Seeds are not always able to complete germination and produce healthy vigorous seedlings in the field or greenhouse. Poor stands are frequently associated with low vigor seeds. Research in this area focuses on the relationships between physiological seed quality, germination environment and the performance of seeds under field or greenhouse conditions. In addition, stand establishment is studied for its impact on grain yield or in the case of bedding plants, usable transplants.

Related Publications:

      TeKrony, D.M. 2006. Seeds: The delivery system for crop science. Crop Science. (In Press).

      TeKrony, D.M. 2006. Soybean seed. In: J.D. Bewley, M. Black, and P. Halmer (eds.) The encyclopedia of seeds: science, technology and uses. CAB Int., (In Press).

      Woltz, J.M., Egli, D.B., and TeKrony, D.M. 2006. Corn seed germination and vigor following freezing during seed development. Crop Science 46: 1526-1535.

      Adams, C.A., Baskin, J.M., and Baskin, C.C. 2005. Trait stasis versus adaptation in disjunct relict species: evolutionary changes in seed dormancy-breaking and germination requirements in a subclade of Aristolochia subgenus Siphisia (Piperales). Seed Science Research 15: 161-173.

      Baskin, C.C., Baskin, J.M., Yoshinaga, A., and Thompson, K. 2005. Germination of drupelets in multi-seeded drupes of the shrub Leptecophylla tameiameiae (Ericaceae) from Hawaii, a case for deep physiological dormancy broken by high temperatures. Seed Science Research 15: 349-356.

      Baskin, J.M., Baskin, C.C., and Tyndall, R.W. 2005. Studies on dormancy, germination, and survival of seeds buried in soil of the rare plant species Aeschynomene virginica (Fabaceae). Natural Areas Journal 25: 147-155.

      Egli, D.B., TeKrony, D.M., Heitholt, J.J., and Rupe, J. 2005. Relationship between air temperature during seed filling and seed germination and vigor in soybean. Crop Science 45: 1329-1335.

      Salaita, L., Kar, R.K., Majee, M., and Downie, A.B. 2005. Identification and characterization of activation tagged Arabidopsis mutants exhibiting rapid seed germination. Journal of Experimental Botany 56: 2059-2069.

      TeKrony, D.M., Schande, T., Rucker, M., and Egli, D.B. 2005. Effect of seed shape on corn germination and vigor during warehouse and controlled environmental storage. Seed Science and Technology 33: 185-187.

      Baskin, C.C., Milberg, P., Andersson, L., and Baskin, J.M. 2004. Germination ecology of seeds of the annual weeds Capsella bursa-pastoris and Descurainia sophia originating from high northern latitudes. Weed Research 44: 60-68.

      Downie, A.B., Dirk, L.M.A., Xu, Q., Drake, J., Zhang, D., Dutt, M., Butterfield, A., Geneve, R.L., Corum III, J.W., Lindstrom, K.G., and Snyder, J.C. 2004. A physical, enzymatic, and genetic characterization of perturbations in the seeds of the brownseed tomato mutants. Journal of Experimental Botany 55: 961-973.

      Dutt, M., and Geneve, R.L. 2004. Elevated levels of ethylene during germination reduces the time to radicle emergence in impatiens. Acta Horticulturae 631: 43-47.

      Zhao, T.-Y., Thacker, R. Corum III, J.W., Snyder, J.C., Meeley, R.B., Obendorf, R.L., and Downie, B. 2004. Expression of the maize GALACTINOL SYNTHASE gene family: I) Expression of two different genes during seed development and germination. Physiologia Plantarum 121: 634-646.

      Baskin, C.C., and Baskin, J.M. 2003. Seed germination and propagation of Xyris tennesseensis, a federal endangered wetland species. Wetlands 23: 116-124.

      Baskin, C.C., and Baskin, J.M. 2003. Overview and recommendations for future research priorities on native seed dormancy and germination of Australian plants. Australian Plant Conservation 11: 2-9.

      Baskin, C.C., Baskin, J.M., and Chester, E.W. 2003. Ecological life cycle of Trepocarpus aethusae and comparisons with two other winter annual Apiaceae native to eastern USA. Castanea 68: 43-55.

      Baskin, C.C., Baskin, J.M., and Chester, E.W. 2003. Seasonal changes in the germination responses of buried seeds of three native eastern North American winter annuals and a discussion of available information for other winter annuals in the region. Plant Species Biology 18: 59-66.

      Downie, B., Gurusinghe, S., Dahal, P., Thacker, R.R., Snyder, J.C., Nonogaki, H., Yim, K., Fukanaga, K., Alvarado, V., and Bradford, K.J. 2003. Expression of a GALACTINOL SYNTHASE gene in tomato seeds is upregulated prior to maturation desiccation and again following imbibition whenever radicle protrusion is prevented. Plant Physiology 131: 1347-1359.

      Downie, B., Zhang, D., Dirk, L.M.A., Thacker, R.R., Pfeiffer, J., Drake, J., Levy, A., Butterfield, D.A., Buxton, J.W., and Snyder, J.C. 2003. Communication between the maternal testa and the embryo and/or endosperm affect testa attributes in tomato. Plant Physiology 133: 145-160.

      Geneve, R.L., Pomper, K.W., Kester, S.T., Egilla, J.N., Finneseth, C.L.H., Crabtree, S., and Layne, D.R. 2003. Propagation of Pawpaw - a Review. HortTechnology 13: 428-433.

      Siriwitayawan, G., Geneve, R.L., and Downie, A.B. 2003. Seed germination of ethylene perception mutants of tomato and arabidopsis. Seed Science Research 13: 303-314.

      Zhao, T.-Y., Meeley, R.B., and Downie, B. 2003. Aberrant processing of a maize GALACTINOL SYNTHASE transcript is caused by heat stress. Plant Science 165: 245-256.

      Bradford, K.J., Chen, F., Cooley, M.B., Dahal, P., Downie, B., Fukunaga, K.K., Gee, O.H., Gurusinghe, S., Mella, R.A., Nonogaki, H., Wu, C.-T., and Yim, K.-O. 2002. Gene expression prior to radicle emergence in imbibed tomato seeds. In: Seed Biology: Advances and Applications. (M. Black, K.J. Bradford, and J. Vazquez-Ramos, Eds.),CAB International, Wallingford, U.K. Chapter 22 pp. 231-252.

      Downie, A.B. 2001. Seed Maturation, Germination, and Dormancy. In: Current Trends in the Embryology of Angiosperms. (SS Bhojwani and WY Soh, Eds.), Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, Boston, London. pgs. 375-418.

This page was last updated on 10 June 2006. Please direct questions and comments regarding this page to

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