- Accountability ::
- Use of results for program continuance/discontinuance; the public reporting of student, program, or institutional data to justify decisions or policies.
- Assessment ::
- The systematic process of determining educational objectives, gathering, analyzing and using information about student learning outcomes to make decisions about programs, individual student progress, and/or accountability.
- Benchmark ::
- A criterion-referenced objective performance datum that is used for comparative purposes. A program can use its own data as a baseline benchmark against which to compare future performance. It can also use data from another program as a benchmark. In the latter case, the other program often is chosen because it is exemplary and its data are used as a target to strive for, rather than as a baseline.
- Cohort ::
- A group of study subjects, selected based on predetermined criteria, who are followed over a period of time.
- Culture of Assessment ::
- An environment in which continuous improvement through assessment is expected and valued.
- Direct Assessment ::
- Direct measures of student leaning require students to display their knowledge and skills as they respond to the instrument itself.
- Effectiveness ::
- The evaluation of department, office, or institutional performance.
- Embedded Assessment ::
- An assessment measure that is done as a normal part of another activity.
- Evaluation ::
- This term broadly covers all potential investigations, with formative or summative conclusions, about institutional functioning. It may include assessment of learning, but it might also include non-learning centered investigations (e.g., satisfaction with recreational facilities).
- Feedback ::
- The return of information about the result of a process or activity. Feedback is an evaluative response.
- Goals for Learning ::
- Goals are used to express intended results in general terms. The term goals are used to describe broad learning concepts, for example: clear communication, problem solving, and ethical awareness.
- Indirect Assessment ::
- Indirect methods such as surveys and interviews ask students to reflect on their learning rather than to demonstrate it.
- Instrument ::
- A tool, such as a survey or rubric, used to systematically assign a value to a variable.
- Learning Outcome ::
- Observable behaviors or actions on the part of students that demonstrate that the intended learning objective has occurred.
- Mean ::
- The average of all the elements (individual's test answers) in a sample. To compute a sample mean, add up all the sample values and divide by the size of the sample.
- Measurement ::
- The systematic investigation of people's attributes.
- Median ::
- The value on a measure or test for which roughly half the data in a sample are smaller and roughly half the data are larger.
- Objectives for Learning ::
- Objectives are used to express intended results in precise terms. Further, objectives are more specific as to what needs to be assessed and thus are a more accurate guide in selecting appropriate assessment tools. Example: Students who participate in the leadership training will know their leadership style.
- Performance-Based ::
- Assessment technique involving the gathering of data though systematic observation of a behavior or process and evaluating that data based on a clearly articulated set of performance criteria to serve as the basis for evaluative judgments.
- Rating Scale ::
- A series of items or statements that describe the degree or extent of an aspect of a skill or a personal trait.
- Reliability ::
- The degree to which a test consistently measures what it is intended to measure.
- Rubric ::
- A scoring guide used in subjective assessments. A scoring rubric makes explicit expected qualities of performance on a rating scale or the definition of a single scoring point on a scale.
- Sample ::
- A selected subset of entities called sampling units (e.g., test takers, items, etc.) from a larger specified set of such entities, called the population.
- Scale ::
- A classification tool or counting system designed to indicate and measure the degree to which an event or behavior has occurred.
- Score ::
- A rating of performance based on a scale or classification.
- Survey ::
- An assessment measure which asks the respondent to record responses to a series of questions.
- Triangulation ::
- The building of multiple sources of information or ideas to support a central finding or theme.
- Validity ::
- The degree to which an instrument measures what it is designed to measure.
The Assessment terms come from variety of glossaries:
James Madison University. Dictionary of Student Outcome Assessment.
Retrieved from http://people.jmu.edu/yangsx/.
Minnesota State University Moorehead. Glossary of Assessment Terms.
Retrieved from http://www.mnstate.edu/assess/poa/glossary.aspx
NOCTI. Assessment Glossary.
Retrieved from http://careertechpa.org/Portals/0/docs/StudentTesting/NOCTI%20Resources/Assessment_Glossary_12-13.pdf
Potsdam. Glossary of Assessment Terms.
Retrieved from http://www.potsdam.edu/offices/ie/assessment/upload/Assessment_Glossary_of_Terms.pdf