Brazilian Culture


Three major contributions to Brazilian Culture:

Indian, Portuguese and African

The Indians

*The Portuguese first arrived in Brazil on April 22, 1500.This occasion has been duly commemorated in a carnival song.We know quite a lot about what they found, in musical terms, thanks to two extraordinary accounts of the music of Brazilian aboriginals dating from the 16th century.The French Calvinist pastor and writer Jean de L»ry published in 1578 a book called Viagem ż Terra do Brasil (Journey to the Land of Brazil), in which there were included illustrations, detailed descriptions of dances and rituals, and transcriptions of some musical refrains of the Tupis.Gabriel Soares de Sousa, a Portuguese colonist and chronicler, described in his 1587 treatise called Tratado Descritivo do Brasil the songs, dances and musical instruments of several tribes.He says that the Tamoios "are great musicians and dancers, and composers of improvised songs" and that the Tupinamb∑s "carry in their right hand a marac∑, a gourd filled with pebbles."

*Brazilian Indian instruments still consist basically of those of percussion: rattles, drums, etc. and wind: flutes, whistles, and horns.According to Marlui Miranda, foremost authority on Brazilian Indian music, there's no Indian influence in Brazilian popular music, even if their contribution to the language, diet and character of Brazilians has been extraordinary.

The Portuguese

*Over the centuries, simple folk, Jesuits and noblemen brought with them traditional dances and dramatic dances like the Bumba-meu-boi, lullabies and nursery rhymes, poetical and lyrical forms, and almost all of the basic musical instruments we hear in Brazil today: flute, clarinet, cavaquinho, guitar, piano, violin, cello, accordion and the tambourine. The cavaquinho, a small guitar with four strings, was also taken to Hawaii where it became the ukulele. The first pianos arrived in Brazil in 1808, in the ships that transported the entire Portuguese court to Bahia and Rio de Janeiro following the invasion of their country by Napoleon Bonaparte.

*One word about the Portuguese language as it is spoken in Brazil. Very often people say that "it is very musical." It sounds very different from continental Portuguese. It has nothing of the "skip all the vowels" or as someone said "surfing from consonant to consonant" quality of the language of the colonists. It has been softened and made mellifluous by the African influence.




The Africans

*African slaves, who began arriving in Brazil around 1538, contributed decisively to the development of both rhythm and choreography in dramatic dances and dances like maracatu, lundu, cateretÕ, jongo and most famous of all, the samba.

*An extensive array of percussion instruments is of African origin: all kinds of drums, from the atabaques used in Afro-Brazilian religions to the surdo and tamborim of the samba school bateria (percussion section); the agogŔ, two metal bells played with a metal stick, and the cuŐca.This unusual instrument is a small metal barrel covered with leather in one end, having attached inside to its center a short stick, which is rubbed with a piece of wet cloth to produce the most extraordinary sounds, which sometimes sounds like laughter.

*Anyone familiar with Brazilian percussion will immediately also think of the berimbau de corpo, a bow stretched by a wire, with an open gourd attached to one end resting against the abdominal cavity for resonance.The percussionist plays it with a stick while holding a type of rattle in his hand.It is the main instrument used in the capoeira, an exciting and beautiful Brazilian martial art of folkloric origin, which is one of the greatest attractions for tourists visiting Salvador in Bahia.

*These dances and instruments were extensively depicted in engravings and watercolors by European visitors during the 19th century.In a book published in 1835 by the German artist Rugendas, we see the lundu (a forerunner of the samba) being danced by slaves and the white middle class alike.

*The process of acculturation lasted about three centuries, and Brazilian music until the middle of the 18th century remained folkloric or anonymous.With the lundus and modinhas (sentimental songs) composed by Domingos Caldas Barbosa (1739-1800) we have the first documented popular music of Brazil.




*Brazil's inhabitants are descendants of a mixture of people. Portuguese colonizers mixed with the native Indians and African slaves (mostly of Yoruba and Quimbundu origin, corresponding to modern-day Nigeria Benin and Angola). Dutch and French colonization also took place in the Northeast. In the 19th century, waves of German, Italian, Polish and Japanese immigrants added new elements to the mixture. Brazilians are perhaps one of the most racially mixed peoples in the world.

*Portuguese is the national language, but Brazilian Portuguese is very different in accent and intonation from the language spoken in Portugal or in other former Portuguese colonies. Some people suggest that Brazilians actually speak ''Brazilian" much in the same way that Americans might be said to speak ''American" rather than English.



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