The Fox Lab

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Insect Genetics, Evolutionary and Behavioral Ecology

Our research interests include:

Ecology and the Evolution of Life Histories:

  • Body Size
  • Sexual Size Dimorphism
  • Egg Size
  • Phenotypic Plasticity
  • Aging and Senescence
  • Maternal Effects
  • Inbreeding Depression

Insect-Plant Interactions:

  • Diet Evolution
  • Adaptation to Host Plants

Insect Behavioral Ecology:

  • Egg Laying Decisions
  • Sexual Selection on Body Size / Sexual Dimorphism

Our Beetles

Life Cycle

Here at the Fox lab we primarily work with bean beetles (Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae). These beetles, commonly referred to as bruchid beetles, are an excellent model system.

Their life history makes for easy lab rearing. Female beetles will glue their eggs to seeds, where offspring will subsequently burrow in and feed until maturation. Adult beetles emerge from seeds, mate and lay eggs, continuing the cycle.

The species we have in the lab do not require food or water, so maintaining colonies of numerous species and using these beetles for experiments is relatively easy.

Bruchid beetles vary between species and across populations within species in many interesting behavioral and physiological traits. Even larval behavior is interesting in these beetles.

These traits make these beetles simple, interesting and exciting to work with in our lab!

Other Lab Insects

Some of our lab members are also working with Bess beetles (Passalidae) and subtropical blowflies (Sarconesia chlorogaster).


Adult Blowfly

Adult Bess Beetle



Lab Colonies

In our lab we have active colonies of:

  • Callosobruchus maculatus from Yemen, Mali, Brazil, and California
  • Callosobruchus chinensis
  • Callosobruchus rhodesianus
  • Stator limbatus
  • Stator pruininus
  • Acanthoscelides obtectus
  • Mimosestes amicus
  • Callosobruchus Maculatus  


  • Mung bean (Vigna radiata)
  • Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata)
  • Lentil (Lens culinaris)
  • Adzuki bean (Vigna angularis)
  • Catclaw acacia (Senagalia greggii)
  • Whitethorn acacia (Vachellia constricta)
  • Texas Ebony (Ebenopsis ebano)
  • Foothill palo verde (Parkinsonia microphylla)
  • Blue palo verde (Parkinsonia florida)



Callosobruchus Chinensis

Current Lab Members

Charles W. Fox


Editor: Functional Ecology

Joseph B. Deas

Post-Doctoral Scholar


William Licht

Entomology PhD Candidate


Jacqueline A. Dillard

Biology PhD Candidate


Melise Lecheta

Visiting Scholar, Brazil


Anna D. Muncy

Senior Laboratory Technician


Past Lab Members

Post-Doctoral Scholars

  • Jordi Moya-Laraño, 2002-2003
  • Claudia M. Rauter, 1999-2002
  • Udo M. Savalli, 1996-2001

Gradute Students

  • R. Craig Stillwell (PhD 2007) (2007 Gamma Sigma Delta Outstanding Ph.D. Student Award)
  • Angela R. Amarillo-Suárez (PhD 2006)
  • Mary Ellen Czesak (PhD 2001)
  • Kristy Scheibly
  • Undergradute Students

    • Josiah Ritchey (Summer 2014)
    • Charles Bumgardner (Spring 2014)
    • Nick Thomas (Spring 2014)
    • Elliot Campbell (Fall 2013 – Spring 2014)
    • Daniel Sullivan (Fall 2013 – Spring 2014)
    • Rachel Zitomer (Summer 2013)
    • Fariba Kanga (Fall 2012–Spring 2013)
    • Michael Allen Stidham (Summer 2012–Fall 2012)
    • Alexis Kriete (Summer 2012)
    • Anna Muncy (Fall 2011 – Spring 2012)
    • Blake Grigsby (Summer 2011)
    • Sheldon McLetchie (Summer 2011 – Fall 2011)
    • Dan McCamish (Spring 2011 – Spring 2012)
    • Ian Becker (Fall 2010 – Spring 2012)
    • Jessica Ryan Connors (Fall 2010–Spring 2011)
    • Adam Kesheimmer (Spring 2010–Summer 2010)
    • Renu Ramesh (Fall 2010–Fall 2011)
    • Sabrina Saia (Fall 2009–Summer 2010)
    • Russell Cunningham (Fall 2009–Spring 2010)
    • Adam Dickinson (Summer 2009)
    • Kevin Handel (Summer 2009–Summer 2010)
    • Brittany Schneider (Spring 2009–Spring 2010)
    • Adam Dickinson (Spring 2009)
    • Bonnie Leksrisawat (Spring 2009)
    • Bonnie Leksrisawat (Fall 2008–Spring 2009)
    • Jacob R. Beard (Fall 2008)
    • William (Billy) Etheridge (Summer 2007)
    • Jessica Huber (Summer 2007)
    • Katherine (Katie) Huber (Summer 2007)
    • Emily Cottrell (Spring 2007–Summer 2007)
    • Alysha Lewis (Spring 2007)
    • Carrie Curtis (Fall 2006)
    • Brian Schleter (Fall 2006)
    • Taylor Tardy (Fall 2006–Summer 2008)
    • Carrie Curtis (Summer 2006–Spring 2007)
    • Christopher Ryan Ernst (Summer 2005)
    • Benjamin Smith (Fall 2005)
    • Lauren Cline (Summer 2004)
    • Fabiola Djojo (Summer 2004)
    • Oriaku Njoku (Summer 2004)
    • Frances Ann Thomas (Summer 2004; Transylvania University student)
    • Sara Cline (Summer 2004; Transylvania University student)
    • Scott Serdoz (Fall 2003–Spring 2004)
    • Denise Johnson (Fall 2003–Summer 2005)
    • Chee Beng Yap (Richard; Summer–Fall 2003)
    • Ana Lucia P. DeSouza (Summer 2003–Fall 2004)
    • Lisa Hitchcock (Summer 2003–Summer 2006)
    • Maria Gomez (Summer 2003)
    • Lana Ng (Spring 2003)v
    • Maysaa El Tigani El-Sayyid (Fall 2003–Spring 2004)
    • Oriaku Njoku (Fall 2002–Summer 2005)
    • Laura Hettinger (Fall 2002–Spring 2003)
    • Kim Carrico (Spring 2002–2003)
    • E. Courtney Elkins (Fall 2002)
    • Jennifer L. McCauley (Fall 2001)
    • Stephanie Wyatt (Fall 2001–Spring 2002)
    • J. Matt Fulkerson (Summer 2001–Fall 2001)
    • Jennifer L. Smith (Spring 2001–Spring 2002)
    • R. Nathan Correll (Spring 2001–Spring 2002)
    • R. Nathan Correll (Fall 2001–Spring 2002)
    • Jennifer L. Smith (Fall 2001–Spring 2002)
    • Marsha Bush (Summer 2001, Spring–Fall 2002, Fall 2003)
    • Jennifer L. McCauley (Spring 2001)
    • R. Keith Rickman (Spring–Fall 2001)
    • Pasano Bojang (Summer 2001; KSU student)
    • Natasha Mwale (Summer 2001; KSU student)
    • Carolyn M. Thornton (Spr. 2001–Fall 2001)
    • E. Courtney Elkins (Fall 2000–Spring 2003)
    • Sarah J. Pollitt (Fall 2000)
    • La’Tansha Dublin (Fall 2000)
    • Brad A. Graham (Fall 2000)
    • Leigh Ann Pass (Fall 2000)
    • Tameika Dawkins (1995)
    • Amy D. Harbin (1995–1996)
    • Monica S. Thakar (1995–1996)
    • Reka Kovacs (1995)
    • John D. Martin (1995)
    • Heather Rush (1995)
    • E. Lloyd Raleigh (1994)
    • Kenn White (1994–1995)
    • Debra L. Hickman (1993–1994)


In Press

  • Verdeny-Vilalta O, CW Fox, DH Wise, J Moya-Laraño. In press. Foraging mode affects the evolution of egg size in generalist predators. Journal of Evolutionary Biology in press.


  • Cheng W, J Lei, JS Johnston, CW Fox, JS Hohnston & K Zhu-Salzman. Comparison of life history and genetic properties of cowpea bruchid strains and their response to hypoxia. Journal of Insect Physiology 75: 5-11. doi: 10.1016/j.jinsphys.2015.02.008


  • Messina FJ, BD Morris & CW Fox. 2013. Effect of inbreeding on host discrimination and other fitness components in a seed beetle. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 106: 128-135. doi: 10.1603/AN12103
  • Fox CW. 2013. The effect of inbreeding on natural selection in a seed-feeding beetle. 2013. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 26: 88-93. doi: 10.1111/jeb.12027


  • Reed DH, CW Fox, LS Enders & TN Kristensen. 2012. Inbreeding-stress interactions: evolutionary and conservation consequences. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1256: 33-48. doi: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2012.06548.x
  • Fox CW, WG Wallin, ML Bush, ME Czesak & FJ Messina. 2012. Effects of seed beetles on the performance of two desert legumes depend on host species, plant stage, and beetle density. Journal of Arid Environments 80: 10-16. doi: 10.1016/j.jaridenv.2011.12.008
  • Fox CW, J Xu, WG Wallin & CL Curtis. 2012. Male inbreeding status affects female fitness in a seed-feeding beetle. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 25: 29-37. doi: 10.1111/j.1420-9101.2011.02400.x


  • Abbot P., et al. (137 authors listed alphabetically). 2011. Inclusive fitness theory and eusociality. Nature 471: E1-E4. doi: 10.1038/nature09831
  • Amarillo-Suárez AR, RC Stillwell & CW Fox. 2011. Natural selection on body size is mediated by multiple interacting factors: a comparison of beetle populations varying naturally and experimentally in body size. Ecology and Evolution 1: 1-14. doi: 10.1002/ece3.1
  • Fox CW & DH Reed. 2011. Inbreeding depression increases with environmental stress: An experimental study and meta-analysis. Evolution 65: 246–258.
  • Fox CW, RC Stillwell, WG Wallin, CL Curtis & DH Reed. 2010. Inbreeding-environment interactions for fitness: Complex relationships between inbreeding depression and temperature stress in a seed-feeding beetle. Evolutionary Ecology 25: 25-43.
  • Fox CW, JD Wagner, S Cline, FA Thomas & FJ Messina. 2011. Rapid evolution of lifespan in a novel environment: sex-specific responses and underlying genetic architecture. Evolutionary Biology 38: 182-196. doi: 10.1007/s11692-011-9116-9
  • Messina FJ & CW Fox. 2011. Egg-dumping behavior is not correlated with wider host acceptance in the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 104: 850-856. doi: 10.1603/AN11040


  • Fox CW & DH Reed. 2010. Inbreeding depression increases with maternal age. Evolutionary Ecology Research in press.
  • Fox CW, ML Bush & FJ Messina. 2010. Biotypes of the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus have differing effects on the germination and growth of their legume hosts. Agricultural and Forest Entomology 12: 353-362.
  • Fox CW & DF Westneat. 2010. Adaptation. Pp 16-31 in DF Westneat & CW Fox (editors) Evolutionary Behavioral Ecology. Oxford University Press, NY.
  • Stillwell RC, WU Blanckenhorn, T Teder, G Davidowitz & CW Fox. 2010. Sex differences in phenotypic plasticity affect variation in sexual size dimorphism in insects – from physiology to evolution. Annual Review of Entomology 55: 227-245. doi: 10.1146/annurev-ento-112408-085500


  • Carroll SP & CW Fox. 2009. The evolution of life histories. Pp 567-570 in M Ruse & J Travis (editors) Evolution: The First Four Billion Years. Belknap Press, Cambridge, MA.
  • Fox CW & J Moya-Laraño. 2009. Diet affects female mating behavior in a seed-feeding beetle. Physiological Entomology 34: 370-378. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3032.2009.00700.x
  • Fox CW & ME Czesak. 2009. Adaptive maternal effects: A case study of egg size plasticity in a seed-feeding beetle. Pp 781-815 in DW Whitman & TN Ananthakrishnan (editors) Phenotypic plasticity of insects: Mechanisms and consequences. Science Pub Inc.
  • Fox CW & RC Stillwell. 2009. Environmental effects on sex differences in the genetic load for adult lifespan in a seed-feeding beetle. Heredity 103: 62-72. doi: 10.1038/hdy.2009.31
  • Fox CW, JD Wagner, S Cline, FA Thomas & FJ Messina. Genetic architecture underlying convergent evolution of egg-laying behavior in a seed-feeding beetle. Genetica 136: 179-187. doi: 10.1007/s10709-008-9334-y
  • Saeki Y, PH Crowley, CW Fox & DA Potter. 2009. A sex-specific size-number trade-off in clonal broods. Oikos 118: 1552-1560. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0706.2009.17571.x
  • Stillwell RC & CW Fox. Geographic variation in body size, sexual size dimorphism and fitness components of a seed beetle: Local adaptation vs. phenotypic plasticity. Oikos 118: 703-712. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0706.2008.17327.x


  • Carroll SP & CW Fox. 2008. The next communities: evolution and the integration of invasive species. Pp 239-251 in SP Carroll & CW Fox (editors) Conservation Biology: Evolution in Action. Oxford University Press, New York.
  • Fox CW, KL Scheibly & DH Reed. 2008. Experimental evolution of the genetic load and its implications for the genetic basis of inbreeding depression. Evolution 62: 2236–2249. doi: 10.1111/j.1558-5646.2008.00441.x
  • Stillwell RC, J Moya-Laraño & CW Fox. 2008. Selection does not favor larger body size at lower temperature in a seed-feeding beetle. Evolution 62: 2534-2544. doi:10.1111/j.1558-5646.2008.00467.x


  • Carroll SP & CW Fox. 2007. Dissecting the evolutionary impacts of plant invasions: bugs and beetles as native guides. Global Change Biology 13: 1644-1657.
  • Carroll SP, AP Hendry, DN Reznick & CW Fox. 2007. Evolution on ecological time scales. Functional Ecology 21: 387-393.
  • Fox CW, RC Stillwell & J Moya-Laraño. 2007. Variation in selection and the evolution of sexual size dimorphism in two seed-feeding beetles. Pp 88-96 in DJ Fairbairn, W Blanckenhorn & T Székely (editors) Sex, Size and Gender Roles: Evolutionary Studies of Sexual Size Dimorphism. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  • Fox CW, KL Scheibly, BP Smith & WG Wallin. 2007. Inbreeding depression in two seed-feeding beetles, Callosobruchus maculatus and Stator limbatus. The Bulletin of Entomological Research 97: 49-54.
  • Moya-Laraño J, M El Tigani El-Sayyid & CW Fox. 2007. Smaller beetles are better scramble competitors at cooler temperatures. Biology Letters 3: 475-478.
  • Stillwell RC, GE Morse & CW Fox. 2007. Geographic variation in body size and sexual size dimorphism of a seed-feeding beetle. The American Naturalist 170: 358-369.
  • Stillwell RC, WG Wallin, LJ Hitchcock & CW Fox. 2007. Phenotypic plasticity in a complex world: Interactive effects of food and temperature on fitness components of a seed beetle. Oecologia 153: 309-321.
  • Stillwell RC & CW Fox. 2007. Environmental effects on sexual size dimorphism of a seed-feeding beetle. Oecologia 153: 273-280.


  • Amarillo-Suárez AR & CW Fox. 2006. Population differences in host use by a seed-beetle – local adaptation, phenotypic plasticity and maternal effects. Oecologia 150: 247-258.
  • Blanckenhorn WU, RC Stillwell, KA Young, CW Fox & KG Ashton. 2006. When Rensch meets Bergmann: Does sexual size dimorphism change systematically with latitude? Evolution 60: 2004-2011.
  • Czesak ME, CW Fox & JB Wolf. 2006. Experimental evolution of phenotypic plasticity: How predictive are cross-environment genetic correlations? The American Naturalist 168: 323-335.
  • Fox CW, DM Gordon & P Bojang. 2006. Genetic and environmental sources of variation in survival on non-native host species in the generalist seed beetle, Stator limbatus. The Southwestern Naturalist 51: 490-501.
  • Fox CW, RC Stillwell, WG Wallin & LJ Hitchcock. 2006. Temperature and host plant affect nuptial gift size in a seed-feeding beetle. Functional Ecology 20: 1003-1011.
  • Fox CW & KL Scheibly. 2006. Variation in inbreeding depression among populations of the seed beetle, Stator limbatus. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 121: 137-144.
  • Fox CW, KL Scheibly, WG Wallin, LJ Hitchcock, RC Stillwell & BP Smith. 2006. The genetic architecture of lifespan and mortality rates: Gender and species differences in inbreeding load of two seed-feeding beetles. Genetics 174: 1-11.
  • Fox CW & ME Czesak. 2006. Selection on body size and sexual size dimorphism differs between host species in a seed-feeding beetle. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 19: 1167-1174.
  • Fox CW 2006. Colonization of a new host by a seed-feeding beetle: Genetic variation, maternal experience, and the effect of an alternate host. Annales Zoologici Fennici 43: 239-247.
  • Moya-Laraño J & CW Fox. 2006. Total ejaculate size, second male body size and moderate polyandry increase female fecundity in a seed beetle. Behavioral Ecology 17: 940-946.


  • Fox CW 2005. Problems in measuring among-family variation in inbreeding depression. American Journal of Botany 92: 1929-1932.
  • Stillwell RC & CW Fox. 2005. Complex patterns of phenotypic plasticity: Interactive effects of temperature during rearing and oviposition. Ecology 86: 924-934.


  • Fox CW, ML Bush, DA Roff & WG Wallin. 2004. The evolutionary genetics of lifespan and mortality rates in two populations of the seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus. Heredity 92: 170-181.
  • Fox CW, ME Czesak & WG Wallin. 2004. Complex genetic architecture of population differences in adult longevity of a beetle: Non-additive inheritance, gender differences, body size and a large maternal effect. Journal of Evoutionary Biology 17: 1007-1017.
  • Fox CW, RC Stillwell, AR Amarillo-S, ME Czesak & FJ Messina. 2004. Genetic architecture of population differences in oviposition behavior of the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 17: 1141-1151.


  • Cope JM & CW Fox. 2003. Oviposition decisions in the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae): Effects of seed size on superparasitism. Journal of Stored Products Research 39: 355-365.
  • Czesak ME & CW Fox. 2003. Evolutionary ecology of size and number in a seed beetle: Genetic trade-offs differ between environments. Evolution 57: 1121-1132.
  • Czesak ME & CW Fox. 2003. Genetic variation in male effects on female reproduction and the genetic covariance between the sexes. Evolution 57: 1359-1366.
  • Fox CW, ML Bush & WG Wallin. 2003. Maternal age affects adult longevity in the seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus. Functional Ecology 17: 811-820.
  • Fox CW, L Dublin & SJ Pollitt. 2003. Gender differences in mortality rates in two seed beetle species. Functional Ecology 17: 619-626.
  • Fox CW & J Moya-Laraño. 2003. Late-life mortality plateaus: A null model for comparing patterns of mortality. Evolutionary Ecology Research 5: 999-1009.
  • Fox CW & CM Rauter. 2003. Bet-hedging and the evolution of multiple mating. Evolutionary Ecology Research 5: 273-286.
  • Heath DD, JW Heath, CA Bryden, RM Johnson & CW Fox. 2003. Rapid evolution of egg size in captive salmon. Science 299: 1738-1740.
    • Fox CW , & DD Heath. 2003. Response to technical comment on “Rapid evolution of egg size in captive salmon” (I). Science 302: 59c.
    • Heath DD, J Moya-Laraño & CW Fox. 2003. Response to technical comment on “Rapid evolution of egg size in captive salmon” (II). Science 302: 59e.


  • Dobson SL, CW Fox & FM Jiggins. 2002. The effect of Wolbachia-induced cytoplasmic incompatability on host population size in natural and manipulated systems. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B 269: 437-445.
  • Savalli UM & CW Fox. Proximate mechanisms influencing egg size plasticity in the seed beetle, Stator limbatus. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 95: 724-734.


  • Carroll SP, H Dingle, TR Famula & CW Fox. 2001. Genetic architecture of adaptive differentiation in evolving host races of the Soapberry Bug, Jadera haematolma. Genetica 112: 257-272.
  • Czesak ME & CW Fox. 2001. The evolutionary ecology of offspring size; concepts and a case study. Recent Research Developments in Ecology 1: 97-114.
  • Fox CW, ME Czesak & RW Fox. 2001. Consequences of plant resistance for herbivore survivorship, growth, and selection on egg size. Ecology 82: 2790-2804.
  • Messina FJ & CW Fox. 2001. Offspring size and number. Pp 113-127 in CW Fox, DA Roff & DJ Fairbairn (eds.) Evolutionary Ecology: Concepts and Case Studies. Oxford University Press, New York.
  • Waddell KJ, CW Fox, KD White & TA Mousseau. 2001. Leaf abscission phenology of a scrub oak: Consequences for growth and survivorship of a leafmining beetle. Oecologia 127: 251-258.


  • Fox CW 2000. Natural selection on seed beetle egg size in the field and the lab: Variation among environments. Ecology 81: 3029-3035.
  • Fox CW 2000. Maternal effects in insect-plant interactions: Lessons from a desert seed beetle. Recent Research Developments in Entomology 3: 71-93.
  • Fox CW , & ME Czesak. 2000. Evolutionary ecology of progeny size in arthropods. Annual Review of Entomology 45: 341-369.
  • Fox CW , & UM Savalli. 2000. Maternal effects mediate diet expansion in a seed-feeding beetle. Ecology 81: 3-7.
  • Savalli UM, ME Czesak & CW Fox. 2000. Paternal investment in the seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae): Variation among populations. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 93: 1173-1178.


  • <Fox CW, ME Czesak, TA Mousseau & DA Roff. 1999. The evolutionary genetics of an adaptive maternal effect: Egg size plasticity in a seed beetle. Evolution 53: 552-560.
  • Fox CW, ME Czesak & UM Savalli. 1999. Environmentally-based maternal effects on development time in the seed beetle, Stator pruininus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae): Consequences of larval density. Environmental Entomology 28: 217-223.
  • Heath DD, CW Fox & JW Heath. 1999. Maternal effects on offspring size: Variation through early development of chinook salmon. Evolution 53: 1605-1611.
  • Savalli UM & CW Fox. 1999. The effects of male size, age, and mating behavior on sexual selection in the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. Ecology, Ethology and Evolution 11: 49-60.
  • Savalli UM & CW Fox. 1999. Effect of male mating history on paternal investment, fecundity, and female remating in the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. Functional Ecology 13: 169-177.


  • Fox CW 1998. Genetic and maternal influences on body size and development time in the seed beetle, Stator limbatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 91: 128-134.
  • Fox CW & TA Mousseau. 1998. Maternal effects as adaptations for transgenerational phenotypic plasticity in insects. Pp. 159-177 in TA Mousseau & CW Fox (editors) Maternal Effects as Adaptations. Oxford University Press, New York.
  • Fox CW & TA Mousseau. 1998. Concluding remarks: Generalities, implications, and future directions. Pp. 345-348 TA Mousseau & CW Fox (editors) Maternal Effects as Adaptations. Oxford University Press, New York.
  • Fox CW & UM Savalli. 1998. Inheritance of environmental variation in body size: Superparasitism of seeds affects grand-progeny body size via a non-genetic maternal effect. Evolution 52: 172-182.
  • Mousseau TA & CW Fox. The adaptive significance of maternal effects – Moms do more than just make babies. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 13: 403-407.
  • Savalli UM & CW Fox. 1998. Sexual selection and the fitness consequences of male body size in the seed beetle, Stator limbatus. Animal Behaviour 55: 473-483.
  • Savalli UM & CW Fox.  1998. Genetic variation in paternal investment in a seed beetle. Animal Behaviour 56: 953-96.


  • Fox CW. 1997. The ecology of body size in a seed beetle, Stator limbatus: Persistence of environmental variation across generations? Evolution 51: 1005-1010.
  • Fox CW. 1997. Egg size manipulations in the seed beetle, Stator limbatus: consequences for progeny growth. The Canadian Journal of Zoology 75: 1465-1473.
  • Fox CW, JA Nilsson & TA Mousseau. 1997. The ecology of diet expansion in a seed-feeding beetle - pre-existing variation, rapid adaptation and maternal effects? Evolutionary Ecology 11: 183-194.
  • Fox CW, MS Thakar & TA Mousseau. 1997. Egg size plasticity in a seed beetle: An adaptive maternal effect. The American Naturalist 149: 149-163.
  • Fox CW, KJ Waddell, J. des Lauriers & TA Mousseau. 1997. Seed beetle survivorship, growth and egg size plasticity in a paloverde hybrid zone. Ecological Entomology 22: 416-424.
  • Fox CW, KJ Waddell, FR Groeters & TA Mousseau. 1997.   Consequences of variation in budbreak phenology for the distribution of a leafmining beetle (Brachys tessellatus) on turkey oak (Quercus laevis). Ecoscience 4: 480-489.


  • Fox CW & TA Mousseau. 1996. Larval host plant affects the fitness consequences of egg size in the seed beetle Stator limbatus. Oecologia 107: 541-548.
  • Fox CW, AD Harbin & TA Mousseau. 1996. Suitability of a non-host palo verde for development of Stator limbatus (Coleoptera; Bruchidae) larvae. The Pan-Pacific Entomologist 72: 31-36.
  • Fox CW, JD Martin, MS Thakar & TA Mousseau. 1996. Clutch size manipulations in two seed beetles, Stator limbatus and S. beali: Consequences for progeny fitness. Oecologia 108: 88-94.


  • Fox CW & TA Mousseau. 1995. Asymmetrical reproductive isolation between Stator limbatus (Horn) and S. beali Johnson (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). The Coleopterists Bulletin 49: 179-181.
  • Fox CW & TA Mousseau. 1995. Determinants of clutch size and seed preference in a seed beetle, Stator beali (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). Environmental Entomology 24: 1557-1561.
  • Fox CW, DL Hickman, EL Raleigh & TA Mousseau. 1995. Paternal investment in a seed beetle (Coleoptera: Bruchidae): influence of male size, age, and mating history. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 88: 100-103.
  • Fox CW, LA McLennan & TA Mousseau. 1995. Male body size affects female lifetime reproductive success in a seed beetle. Animal Behaviour 50: 281-284.
  • Fox CW, KJ Waddell & TA Mousseau. 1995. Parental host plant affects offspring life histories in a seed beetle. Ecology 76: 402-411.
  • Fox CW, KJ Waddell, KD White, SH Faeth &TA Mousseau. 1995. Suppression of leafminer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) populations on turkey oak (Fagaceae) using implants of acephate. Environmental Entomology 24: 1548-1556.


  • Fox CW 1994. The influence of egg size on offspring performance in the seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus. Oikos 71: 321-325.
  • Fox CW 1994. Maternal and genetic influences on egg size and larval performance in a seed beetle: Multigenerational transmission of a maternal effect? Heredity 73: 509-517.
  • Fox CW & RL Caldwell. 1994. Host-associated fitness trade-offs do not limit the evolution of diet breadth in the small milkweed bug Lygaeus kalmii (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae). Oecologia 97: 382-389.
  • Fox CW & H Dingle. 1994. Dietary mediation of maternal age effects on offspring performance in a seed beetle (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). Functional Ecology 8: 600-606.
  • Fox CW & DL Hickman. 1994. Influence of oviposition substrate on female receptivity to multiple mating in Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 87: 395-398.
  • Fox CW & M Tatar. 1994. Oviposition substrate affects adult mortality, independent of reproduction, in the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. Ecological Entomology 19: 108-110.
  • Fox CW, KJ Waddell & TA Mousseau. 1994. Host-associated fitness variation in a seed beetle (Coleoptera: Bruchidae): Evidence for local adaptation to a poor quality host. Oecologia 99: 329-336.


  • Fox CW 1993. A quantitative genetic analysis of oviposition preference and larval performance on two hosts in the bruchid beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus. Evolution 47: 166-175.
  • Fox CW 1993. Multiple mating, lifetime fecundity and female mortality of the bruchid beetle Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). Functional Ecology 7: 203-208.
  • Fox CW 1993. The influence of maternal age and mating frequency on egg size and offspring performance in Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). Oecologia 96: 139-146.
  • Fox CW & RG Lalonde. 1993. Confusion of hosts and the evolution of insect diet breadths. Oikos 67: 577-581.

Book Reviews

  • Fox CW. 2010. All that I am, I owe to my mother. Review of: Maternal Effects in Mammals, edited by Dario Maestripieri and Jill M. Mateo. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 25: 323-324. doi:10.1016/j.tree.2010.01.006
  • Mousseau TA & CW Fox. 1994. Evolution of Life: Processes, Patterns, and Prospects, by Michael L. McKinney. Quarterly Review of Biology 69: 94-95.

Published Photogrpahs

  • Savalli UM & CW Fox. 1996. Photograph of Stator limbatus on Acacia greggii seeds. Science 273: 1334.
  • Savalli UM & CW Fox. 1996. Photograph demonstrating egg size plasticity in Stator limbatus. Science 273: 1334.


Charles W. Fox
Phone: 859-257-7474
Fax: 859-323-1120

Laboratory Technician
Anna Muncy
Phone: 859-257-7472

Department Information

University of Kentucky
Department of Entomology
S-225 Ag. Science Center N.
Lexington KY 40546-0091

Phone: 859-257-7450