- refers to the environment in which human communication takes place.
Botan, Friedman & Kreps, 1991
occurs when a small number
of people (usually one person) address a larger group of people (speeches,
lectures, oral reports, and dramatic performances).
when a small number of people send messages to a large, anonymous, and
usually heterogeneous audience through the use of specialized communication
Communication (cross-cultural communication)
occurs within a particular
composed of interdependent groups attempting to achieve commonly recognized
occurs among three
or more people interacting in an attempt to achieve commonly recognized
(dyad), either face to face or through mediated forms (such as a telephone
or computer), characterized by the mutual awareness of the individuality
of the other.
internal communication process that occurs when we send messages to ourselves
and develop messages to send to others. Communication with ourselves.
and the Aged
Education - study of communication within the educational system.
Researchers are interested in teacher-student communication patterns and
the use of communication strategies to influence learning. We distinguish
communication (communication in instruction) and communication
education (instruction in communication)
Health Communication - study of communication
within the health care system. Researchers are interested in
how patients talk about their illnesses, communication between physicians
and patients, message flow within health care organizations, and health
care public campaigns.