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Muted Group

Explanation of Theory: Women and members of other subordinate groups are not as free or able as men to say what they wish because their words have been formulated and translated by a male-dominated style of communication.

Theorists: Chris Kramarae

Date: n/a

Primary Article: n/a.

Individual Interpretations:n/a

Metatheoretical Assumptions:

Ontological Assumptions:n/a

Epistemological Assumptions:n/a

Axiological Assumptions:n/a

Critique: n/a

Ideas and Implications: n/a

Example: n/a

Relevant Research:
Burgoon, J. K. (1978). A communication model of personal space violations: Explication and an initial test. Human Communication Research, 4, 129-42.
Cronkhite, G. (1986). On the focus, scope, and coherence of the study of human symbolic activity. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 72, 231-46.
Green, J. O., O’Hair, H.D., Cody, M. J., & Yen, C. (1985). Planning and control of behavior during deception. Human Communication Research, 11, 335-64.
Related www Links and References 

Location in Eight (8) Primary Communication Theory Textbooks:

     Anderson, R., & Ross, V. (1998). Questions of communication: A practical introduction to theory (2nd ed.). New York: St. Martin's Press.  203-205

     Cragan, J. F., & Shields, D.C. (1998). Understanding communication theory: The communicative forces for human action. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon. 298-300

 Griffin, E. (2000). A first look at communication theory (4th ed.). Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill. 459-470

     Griffin, E. (1997). A first look at communication theory (3rd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill. 459-469

      Infante, D. A., Rancer, A. S., & Womack, D. F. (1997). Building communication theory (3rd ed.). Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press. 228-230

      Littlejohn, S. W. (1999). Theories of human communication (6th ed). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth. 75-77

      West, R., & Turner, L. H. (2000). Introducing communication theory: Analysis and application. Mountain View, CA: Mayfield. 389-402

       Wood, J. T. (1997). Communication theories in action: An introduction. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth. 321-329