2001 THEORY WORKBOOK
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There are a hierarchy
of beliefs, attitudes and values. Beliefs are the building blocks of attitudes,
so an attitude can be comprised of many beliefs and many attitudes merge
to create a value.
Rokeach, M. and Rothman G. (1965). The principle of belief congruence and
the congruity principle as models of cognitive interaction. Psychological
Review, 72, 128-142.
A person has countless
beliefs, fewer attitudes and a limited number of true values. The beliefs
must be congruent with attitudes they comprise. Beliefs, attitudes and
values are interwoven and ranked as a single belief system.
This theory claims that
there is a hierarchy of beliefs, attitudes and values and explains how
changes are made in each andpredicts how the change will occur.
Our values, attitudes
and belief system can often be looked at as a layer of an onion. The outer
layers are much easier to alter than those closer to the center. As we
come closer to the center,it is nearly impossible to create a change. Shifts
in our attitudes or beliefs may serve as short-term changes of behavior,
but only values serve as life guides that dictate a lifelong set of behaviors.
When any type of company
markets a product that is controversial, they have a goal to change the
beliefs of the consumer concerning the aspects of their products so that
the consumer will purchase the product. They realize that they are not
able to change consumer values with a mere advertisement, but they may
change a surface belief that could result in a sale. For instance, a candy
manufacturer could make the claim that their candy, unlike other candy,
is actually healthy and promotes a longer life. The consumer, who previously
thought the candy was unhealthy, changes this belief and purchases the
candy. There is no change in value, the consumer will still not purchase
what is bad for them, but the change in their belief of that specific product
creates a change
in Eight (8) Primary Communication Theory Textbooks:
Anderson, R., & Ross, V.
Questions of communication: A practical introduction to theory
(2nd ed.). New York: St. Martin's Press. N/A
Cragan, J. F., & Shields, D.C. (1998). Understanding communication
theory: The communicative forces for human action. Boston, MA: Allyn
& Bacon. N/A
Griffin, E. (2000). A first look at communication theory (4th ed.).
Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill. N/A
Griffin, E. (1997). A first look at communication theory (3rd ed.).
New York: McGraw-Hill. N/A
Infante, D. A., Rancer, A. S., & Womack, D. F. (1997). Building
communication theory (3rd ed.). Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press.
Littlejohn, S. W. (1999).
Theories of human communication (6th ed).
Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
West, R., & Turner, L. H. (2000). Introducing communication theory:
Analysis and application. Mountain View, CA: Mayfield. N/A
Wood, J. T. (1997).
Communication theories in action: An introduction.
Belmont, CA: Wadsworth. N/A