Chapter Four: Relating
to Others in Small Groups
1. Describe how an individual develops and defines self
2. Distinguish task, maintenance, and individual roles.
3. Identify several group norms that often develop in small groups.
4. Recognize and adjust to cultural differences in group communication.
5. Explain several effects of status differences on small group
6. Describe how five power bases affect relationships in small
7. Identify factors that foster trusting relationships with others.
8. Apply guidelines for appropriate self-disclosure in small
9. Describe how relationships develop over time among group members.
“Relationships refer to the feelings, roles, norms, status, and trust
that both affect and reflect the quality of relationships between you and
“Relational communication theorists assert that every message has
both a content dimension and a relationship dimension.”
Focus of the chapter is to emphasize the
six relational elements that affect the quality of the relationships within
a group: roles, norms, status differences, cultural differences, power,
A. Sets of expectations
B. Self Concept Development: Gender, Culture,
and Role Formation
gender affects our behavior in groups.
of Origin influences willingness to communicate.
a) People’s expectations about their own behavior.
b) Perceptions others have about individual’s positions in the group.
c) people’s actual behavior as they interact with others.
C. Diversity of Roles in Small Groups
assume roles because of their interests and abilities and because of the
expectations of the rest of the group.
roles - help accomplish a group’s task.
roles - define a group’s social atmosphere.
roles - call attention to individual contributions (counterproductive
to overall group effort)
D. Group Task Roles
11. Procedural technician
E. Group Building and Maintenance
F. Individual Roles
7. Help Seeker
LOAFER - SLACKER!
A. Identifying Group Norms
Norms: rules or standards that determine
what is appropriate and inappropriate behavior in a group.
Repeated Behavior Patterns
B. How Norms Develop
Behavior that occurs early in a group's development
C. Conforming to Group Norms (5 Factors that
Affect Conformity to Group Norms)
1. The individual
characteristics of the group members
2. The clarity
of the norm and the certainty of punishment for breaking it
3. The number
of people who have already conformed to the norm
4. The quality
of the interpersonal relationships that have developed in the group
5. The sense
of group identification that members have developed
A. Individualism and Collectivism
B. Conversational Style
IV. A New and Growing Culture: Persons with
V. Status - refers to an individuals importance.
A. Privileges Accorded to High Status Group Members
B. Effects of Status Differences
C. Observing Status Differences to Predict Group
A. Power Bases
B. Effects of Power on Group Process
C. Power and Gender
D. Status and Power: A Cultural Footnote
A. Developing Trusting Relationships
B. Self-Disclosure-the deliberate communication
of information about yourself to others
VIII. The Development of Group Relationships
Over Time (Primary vs. Secondary Tensions)
IX. Putting Principles into Practice
H. NORM Exercises
I. Group ROLE Inventory
**EVERYONE SHOULD COMPLETE THIS CONSIDERING
ALL MEMBERS OF THEIR GROUP