Albert Bandura
Publications Related to Self-Efficacy


2002

Determinants and structural relation of personal efficacy to collective efficacy
Fernandez-Ballesteros, R., Diez-Nicolas, J., Caprara, G. V., Barbaranelli, C.& Bandura, A.
APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY: AN INTERNATIONAL REVIEW
Vol 51(1) Jan 2002, 107-125
Author email: r.fballesteros@uam.es
Abstract: Tested a structural model regarding the impact of socioeconomic status on 1,214 Ss' (52% women and 48% men, aged 18-91 yrs) perceived individual efficacy and its link to their perceived collective efficacy. In sociodemographic analyses younger participants, compared to their older counterparts, judged themselves less efficacious to manage their worklife, intimate partnerships, and financial condition, but of higher efficacy in promoting social change. Men had a higher sense of efficacy than women to contribute to the solution of social problems. In accord with the posited structural model, socioeconomic status contributed to both perceived personal efficacy to manage one's life circumstances and individual efficacy to contribute to the betterment of societal conditions. Both forms of perceived individual efficacy, in turn, contributed substantially to a sense of collective efficacy to effect social change through unified action. An alternative model in which perceived collective efficacy is assigned causal primacy affecting perceived individual efficacy provided a poorer fit to the data.

The Revised Scale for Caregiving Self-Efficacy: Reliability and validity studies
Steffen, A. M., McKibbin, C., Zeiss, A. M., Gallagher-Thompson, D.., & Bandura, A.
JOURNAL OF GERONTOLOGY SERIES B-PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCES & SOCIAL SCIENCES
Vol 57B(1) Jan 2002, 74-P86
Author email: ann_steffen@umsl.edu
Abstract: Two samples of family caregivers (Study 1, 169 Ss mean age 63.8 yrs; Study 2, 145 Ss mean age 60.2 yrs) of cognitively impaired older adults were, used to revise, extend, and evaluate a measure of perceived self-efficacy for caregiving tasks. The Revised Scale for Caregiving Self-Efficacy measures 3 domains of caregiving self-efficacy: Obtaining Respite, Responding to Disruptive Patient Behaviors, and Controlling Upsetting Thoughts. The 3 subscales show strong internal consistency and adequate test-retest reliability. Construct validity is supported by relationships between these 3 facets of perceived caregiving efficacy and depression, anxiety, anger, perceived social support, and criticism expressed in speech samples. The Revised Scale for Caregiving Self-Efficacy has potential uses for both research and clinical purposes.

Social cognitive theory of mass communication
Bandura, A.
In Jennings Bryant and Dolf Zillmann (Eds).(2002). Media effects: Advances in theory and research (2nd ed.).
LEA's communication series. (pp. 121-153). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Abstract: (from the chapter) The focus of this chapter is on the social cognitive theory of mass communication. Because of the influential role the mass media play in society, understanding the psychosocial mechanisms through which symbolic communication influences human thought, affect, and action is of considerable import. Social cognitive theory provides an agentic conceptual framework within which to examine the determinants and mechanisms of such effects. Human behavior has often been explained in terms of unidirectional causation, in which behavior is shaped and controlled either by environmental influences or by internal dispositions. Social cognitive theory explains psychosocial functioning in terms of triadic reciprocal causation. In this transactional view of self and society, personal factors in the form of cognitive, affective, and biological events; behavioral patterns; and environmental events all operate as interacting determinants that influence each other bidirectionally. Some sections of this chapter include revised, updated, and expanded material from the book Social Foundations of Thought and Action: A Social Cognitive Theory.

2001

The changing face of psychology at the dawning of a globalization era
Bandura A
CANADIAN PSYCHOLOGY-PSYCHOLOGIE CANADIENNE
42 (1): 12-24 FEB 2001
Abstract: Societies today are undergoing drastic social, informational, and technological changes. The revolutionary advances in electronic technologies and globalization are transforming the nature, reach, speed, and loci of human influence. These rapidly evolving realities place increasing demands on the of personal and collective agency to shape personal destinies and the national life of societies. There is growing unease about progressive divestiture of different aspects of psychology to biology and subpersonal cognitive science. It is feared that as we give away more and more psychology to disciplines lower on the food chain, there will be no core psychological discipline left. Contrary to divestitive oracles, psychology is the integrative discipline best suited to advance understanding of human adaptation and change. It is the discipline that uniquely encompasses the complex interplay between intrapersonal, biological, interpersonal, and sociostructural determinants of human functioning. With the growing primacy of human agency in virtually all spheres of life, the field of psychology should be articulating a broad vision of human beings not a reductive fragmentary one.

Impact of guided exploration and enactive exploration on self-regulatory mechanisms and information acquisition through electronic search
Debowski, S., Wood, R. E., & Bandura, A.
JOURNAL OF APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY
Vol 86(6) Dec 2001, 1129-1141
Author email: rwood@agsm.edu.au
Abstract: Following instruction in basic skills for electronic search, participants who practiced in a guided exploration mode developed stronger self-efficacy and greater satisfaction than those who practiced in a self-guided exploratory mode. Intrinsic motivation was not affected by exploration mode. On 2 posttraining tasks, guided exploration participants produced more effective search strategies, expended less effort, made fewer errors, rejected fewer lines of search, and achieved higher performance. Relative lack of support for self-regulatory factors as mediators of exploration mode impacts was attributed to the uninformative feedback from electronic search, which causes most people to remain at a novice level and to require external guidance for development of self-efficacy and skills. Self-guided learning will be more effective on structured tasks with more informative feedback and for individuals with greater expertise on dynamic tasks.

Self-efficacy beliefs as shapers of children's aspirations and career trajectories
Bandura, A., Barbaranelli, C., Caprara, G. V., & Pastorelli.
CHILD DEVELOPMENT
Vol 72(1) Jan-Feb 2001, 187-206
Abstract: This prospective study tested with 272 children (aged 11-15 yrs) a structural model of the network of sociocognitive influences that shape children's career aspirations and trajectories. Familial socioeconomic status is linked to children's career trajectories only indirectly through its effects on parents' perceived efficacy and academic aspirations. The impact of parental self-efficacy and aspirations on their children's perceived career efficacy and choice is, in turn, entirely mediated through the children's perceived efficacy and academic aspirations. Children's perceived academic, social, and self-regulatory efficacy influence the types of occupational activities for which they judge themselves to be efficacious both directly and through their impact on academic aspirations. Perceived occupational self-efficacy gives direction to the kinds of career pursuits children seriously consider for their life's work and those they disfavor. Children's perceived efficacy rather than their actual academic achievement is the key determinant of their perceived occupational self-efficacy and preferred choice of worklife. Analyses of gender differences reveal that perceived occupational self-efficacy predicts traditionality of career choice.

Social cognitive theory of mass communication
Bandura, A.
MEDIA PSYCHOLOGY
Vol 3(3) Aug 2001, 265-299
Abstract: Social cognitive theory provides an agentic conceptual framework within which to analyze the determinants and psychosocial mechanisms through which symbolic communication influences human thought, affect and action. Communications systems operate through two pathways. In the direct pathway, they promote changes by informing, enabling, motivating, and guiding participants. In the socially mediated pathway, media influences link participants to social networks and community settings that provide natural incentives and continued personalized guidance, for desired change. Social cognitive theory analyzes social diffusion of new styles of behavior in terms of the psychosocial factors governing their acquisition and adoption and the social networks through which they spread and are supported. Structural interconnectedness provides potential diffusion paths; sociocognitive factors largely determine what diffuses through those paths.

Sociocognitive self-regulatory mechanisms governing transgressive behavior
Bandura A, Caprara GV, Barbaranelli C, Pastorelli C, & Regalia C
JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
80 (1): 125-135 JAN 2001
Abstract: This longitudinal research examined a structural model of the self-regulatory mechanisms governing transgressive conduct. Perceived academic and self-regulatory efficacy concurrently and longitudinally deterred transgressiveness both directly and by fostering prosocialness and adherence to moral self-sanctions for harmful conduct. The impact of perceived social self-efficacy was mediated through prosocialness. Moral disengagement and prosocialness affected transgressiveness through the mediating influence of irascible affectivity and hostile rumination. Ruminative affectivity, in turn, both concurrently and longitudinally affected transgressiveness. Moral disengagement also contributed independently to variance in transgressiveness over time. This pattern of relations was obtained after controlling for prior transgressiveness. The structural model was replicated across gender and provided a better fit to the data than did several alternative models.

The structure of children's perceived self-efficacy: A cross-national study
Pastorelli, C., Caprara, G. V., Barbaranelli, C., Rola, J., Rozsa, S., & Bandura, A.
EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT
Vol 17(2) 2001, 87-97
Abstract: Investigated the replicability of the factor structure of the Children's Perceived Self-Efficacy scales in Italy, Hungary, and Poland. The findings of this cross-national study support the generalizability of the factor structure of children's social and academic efficacy (aged 10-15 yrs). Perceived efficacy to resist peer pressure to engage transgressive conduct had a somewhat different factor structure for Hungarian children. Gender and national differences in the pattern of efficacy beliefs underscore the value of treating perceived self-efficacy as a multifaceted attribute. There were no overall gender differences in perceived social efficacy, but girls in all 3 societies have a higher sense of efficacy for academic activities and to resist peer pressure for transgressive activities. Italian children judge themselves more academically efficacious than do Hungarian children and more socially efficacious than their counterparts in both of the other 2 countries. An analysis of the facets of academic efficacy revealed that Hungarian children have a high sense of efficacy to master academic Ss but a lower efficacy than their Italian and Polish counterparts to take charge of their own learning. Polish children surpassed their counterparts in academic self-regulatory efficacy.

Swimming against the mainstream: The early years in chilly waters
Bandura, A.
In W. T. O'Donohue & D. A. Henderson (Ed). (2001). A history of the behavioral therapies: Founders' personal histories.
pp. 163-182). Reno, NV, US: Context Press. xxii, 357pp.
Abstract: (from the chapter) Traces the evolution of social cognitive theory, highlighting some of the facets of an agentic sociocognitive approach to human understanding and betterment, and documents some of the applications of this theory at both individual and macrosocial levels. Social cognitive theory lends itself readily to social applications, since the factors it posits are anchored in indices of functioning and are amenable to change. The models of personal and social change developed in social cognitive theory draw heavily on knowledge of modeling, self-regulatory, and self-efficacy mechanisms. These can be applied to treatment settings in terms of guided mastery treatments and self-management models with social utility, and in terms of social modeling at the society-wide level.

2000

Exercise of human agency through collective efficacy
Bandura A
Current Directions in Psychological Science
Vol 9(3) Jun 2000, 75-78
Abstract: Social cognitive theory adopts an agentic perspective in which individuals are producers of experiences and shapers of events. Among the mechanisms of human agency, none is more focal or pervading than the belief of personal efficacy. This core belief is the foundation of human agency. Unless people believe that they can produce desired effects and forestall undesired ones by their actions, they have little incentive to act. The growing interdependence of human functioning is placing a premium on the exercise of collective agency through shared beliefs in the power to produce effects by collective action. The present article analyzes the nature of perceived collective efficacy and its centrality in how people live their lives. Perceived collective efficacy fosters groups' motivational commitment to their missions, resilience to adversity, and performance accomplishments.

Health promotion from the perspective of social cognitive theory
Bandura A
In P. Norman & C. Abraham (Eds.). (2000). Understanding and changing health behaviour: From health beliefs to self-regulation.
(pp. 299-339). Amsterdam, Netherlands: Harwood Academic Publishers
Abstract: This reprinted article originally appeared in Psychology & Health, 1998(Jul), 13(4), 623-649. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2000-14283-003.) Examines health promotion and disease prevention from the perspective of social cognitive theory. Main topics discussed are: (1) sociocognitive causal structure; (2) tests for redundancy of predictors; (3) stages of change; (4) generational changes in psychosocial interventions; (5) structure of self-regulatory functions; (6) computerized self-regulatory system; (7) self-regulatory system in post-coronary care; (8) self-regulatory impact on coronary artery disease; (9)self-management of chronic disease; (10) socially-oriented interventions; (11) childhood health promotion models; (12) collective efficacy for policy initiatives; and (13) collective efficacy.

Prosocial foundations of children's academic achievement
Caprara GV, Barbaranelli C, Pastorelli C, Bandura A, Zimbardo PG
PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE
11: (4) 302-306 JUL 2000
Abstract: The present longitudinal research demonstrates robust contributions of early prosocial behavior to children's developmental trajectories in academic and social domains. Both prosocial and aggressive behaviors in early childhood were tested as predictors of academic achievement and peer relations in adolescence 5 years later: Prosocialness included cooperating, helping, sharing, and consoling, and the measure of antisocial aspects included proneness to verbal and physical aggression. Prosocialness had a strong positive impact on later academic achievement and social preferences, but early aggression had no significant effect on either outcome. The conceptual model accounted for 35% of variance in later academic achievement, ann 37% of variance ill social preferences. Additional analysis revealed that early academic achievement did not contribute to later academic achievement after controlling for effects of early prosocialness. Possible mediating processes by which prosocialness may affect academic achievement and other socially desirable developmental outcomes are proposed.

Self-efficacy: The foundation of agency
Bandura A
In W. J. Perrig (2000) (Ed.), Control of human behavior, mental processes, and consciousness, p. 17-33. Erlbaum
Abstract: Diverse lines of research verify that beliefs of personal efficacy play an influential role both in mediating the impact of environmental conditions on behavior and in the production of environmental conditions. Belief in the power to make things happen operated through direct personal agency, proxy agency, and collective agency. Social cognitive theory provides prescriptive knowledge on how to alter beliefs of personal and collective efficacy that enable people to change their lives for the better.

Self-evaluative and self-efficacy mechanisms of governing the motivational effects of goal systems
Bandura, A., & Cervone, D.
In E. T. Higgins& A. W. Kruglanski (Eds.). (2000). Motivational science: Social and personality perspectives. Key reading in social psychology
(pp. 202-214). Philadelphia, PA: Psychology Press/Taylor & Francis
Abstract: (from the chapter) This reprinted chapter originally appeared in (Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 1983, 45[5], 1017-1028). (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 1984-12232-001). Tested the hypothesis that self-evaluative and self-efficacy mechanisms mediate the effects of goal systems on performance motivation. These self-reactive influences are activated through cognitive comparison requiring both personal standards and knowledge of performance. 45 male and 45 female undergraduates performed a strenuous activity with either goals and performance feedback, goals alone, feedback alone, or without either factor. The condition combining performance information and a standard had a strong motivational impact, whereas neither goals alone nor feedback alone effected changes in motivation. When both comparative factors were present, the evaluative and efficacy self-reactive influences predicted the magnitude of motivation enhancement. The higher the self-dissatisfaction with substandard performance and the stronger the perceived self-efficacy for goal attainment, the greater was the subsequent intensification of effort. When one comparative factor was lacking, the self-reactive influences were differentially related to performance motivation . . .

Social cognitive theory: An agentic perspective
Bandura.
ANNUAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY
Vol 52 2000, 1-26
Abstract: The capacity to exercise control over the nature and quality of one's life is the essence of humanness. Human agency is characterized by a number of core features that operate through phenomenal and functional consciousness. These include the temporal extension of agency through intentionality and forethought, self-regulation by self-reactive influence, and self-reflectiveness about one's capabilities, quality of functioning, and the meaning and purpose of one's life pursuits. Personal agency operates within a broad network of sociostructural influences. In these agentic transactions, people are producers as well as products of social systems. Social cognitive theory distinguishes among three modes of agency: direct personal agency, proxy agency that relies on others to act on one's behest to secure desired outcomes, and collective agency exercised through socially coordinative and interdependent effort. Growing transnational embeddedness and interdependence are placing a premium on collective efficacy to exercise control over personal destinies and national life.

1999

Escaping homelessness: The influences of self-efficacy and time perspective on coping with homelessness
Elissa ES, Bandura A, Zimbardo PG
JOURNAL OF APPLIED SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
29: (3) 575-596 MAR 1999
Abstract: This study explored whether self-efficacy and time perspective of homeless adults (N = 82) living in a shelter affected their coping strategies related to obtaining housing and employment. Participants with high self-efficacy searched more for housing and employment and stayed at the shelter for a shorter duration, whereas participants with low self-efficacy were more likely to request an extension of their stay at the shelter. Those high on future orientation had shorter durations of homelessness and were more likely to enroll in school and to report gaining positive benefits from their predicament, whereas those with a high present orientation had more avoidant coping strategies. Despite the predictive power of self-efficacy and future orientation of proactive search behaviors, there were no predictors of obtaining stable housing, which is a scarce resource in the area. However, a high present orientation predicted obtaining temporary housing. A present temporal perspective may be adaptive in finding short-term solutions to an unstable situation, such as homelessness. The role of time perspective in crisis situations is discussed, as well as the severe environmental constraints on the exercise of personal control over reality dictated by social, economic, and political forces.

Evidence suggesting that a chronic disease self-management program can improve health status while reducing hospitalization: A randomized trial
Lorig KR, Sobel DS, Stewart AL, Brown BW, Bandura A, Ritter P, Gonzalez VM, Laurent DD, Holman HR
MEDICAL CARE
37: (1) 5-14 JAN 1999
Abstract:
OBJECTIVES. This study evaluated the effectiveness (changes in health behaviors, health status, and health service utilization) of a self-management program for chronic disease designed for use with a heterogeneous group of chronic disease patients. It also explored the differential effectiveness of the intervention for subjects with specific diseases and comorbidities.
METHODS. The study was a six-month randomized, controlled trial at community-based sites comparing treatment subjects with wait-list control subjects. Participants were 952 patients 40 years of age or older with a physician-confirmed diagnosis of heart disease, lung disease, stroke, or arthritis. Health behaviors, health status, and health service utilization, as determined by mailed, self-administered questionnaires, were measured.
RESULTS. Treatment subjects, when compared with control subjects, demonstrated improvements at 6 months in weekly minutes of exercise, frequency of cognitive symptom management, communication with physicians, self-reported health, health distress, fatigue, disability, and social/role activities limitations. They also had fewer hospitalizations and days in the hospital. No differences were found in pain/physical discomfort, shortness of breath, or psychological well-being.
CONCLUSIONS. An intervention designed specifically to meet the needs of a heterogeneous group of chronic disease patients, including those with comorbid conditions, was feasible and beneficial beyond usual care in terms of improved health behaviors and health status. It also resulted in fewer hospitalizations and days of hospitalization.

Moral disengagement in the perpetration of inhumanities
Bandura A
PERSONALITY & SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY REVIEW - Special Issue: Perspectives on evil and violence
Vol 3(3), 193-209, 1999
Abstract: Moral agency is manifested in both the power to refrain from behaving inhumanely and the proactive power to behave humanely. Moral agency is embedded in a broader sociocognitive self 'theory encompassing self-organizing, proactive, self-reflective, ands elf-regulatory mechanisms rooted in personal standards linked to self-sanctions. The self-regulatory mechanisms governing moral conduct do not come into play unless they are activated, and there are many psychosocial maneuvers by which moral self-sanctions are selectively disengaged from inhumane conduct. The moral disengagement may center, among other possibilities, on the cognitive restructuring of inhumane conduct into a benign or worthy one by moral justification, sanitizing language, and advantageous comparison. Many inhumanities operate through a supportive network of legitimate enterprises run by otherwise considerate people who contribute to destructive activities by disconnected subdivision of functions and diffusion of responsibility. Given the many mechanisms for disengaging moral control, civilized life requires, in addition to humane personal standards, safeguards built into social systems that uphold compassionate behavior and renounce cruelty.

Perceived emotional and interpersonal self-efficacy and good social functioning. [Italian]
Original Title: Autoefficacia percepita emotiva e interpersonale e buon funzionamento sociale
Caprara, G. V., Scabini, E., Barbaranelli, C., Pastorelli, C., Regalia, C., & Bandura.
GIORNALE ITALIANO DI PSICOLOGIA
Vol 26(4) Dec 1999, 769-789
Abstract: Studied the role of perceived emotional and interpersonal self-efficacy in psychological adjustment. 162 male and 162 female high school students aged 14-18 yrs in Italy were administered a scale developed to measure the perceived ability to regulate one's own positive and negative affect. A structural equation model was used in which depressive social withdrawal, antisocial conduct, and prosocial behavior were considered as dependent variables that were influenced by perceived emotional self-efficacy directly and indirectly through perceived interpersonal self-efficacy. The results partially confirm the direct influence of perceived emotional self-efficacy on the dependent variables and fully confirm its indirect influence through perceived interpersonal self-efficacy.

Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change
Bandura, A.
In R. F. Baumeister (Ed.). (1999). The self in social psychology. Key readings in social psychology
(pp. 285-298). Philadelphia, PA: Psychology Press/Taylor & Francis
Abstract: (from the chapter) This reprinted article originally appeared in Psychological Review, 1977, Vol 84(2), 191-215. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 1977-25733-001.) Presents an integrative theoretical framework to explain and predict psychological changes achieved by different modes of treatment. This theory states that psychological procedures, whatever their term, alter the level and strength of self-efficacy. It is hypothesized that expectations of personal efficacy determine whether coping behavior will be initiated, how much effort will be expended, and how long it will be sustained in the face of obstacles and aversive experiences. Persistence in activities that are subjectively threatening but in fact relatively safe produces, through experiences of mastery, further enhancement of self-efficacy and corresponding reductions in defensive behavior. In the proposed model, expectations of personal efficacy are derived from 4 principal sources of information: performance accomplishments, vicarious experience, verbal persuasion, and physiological states. Factors influencing the cognitive processing of efficacy information arise from enactive, vicarious, exhortative, and emotive sources. The differential power of diverse therapeutic procedures is . . .

Self-efficacy pathways to childhood depression
Bandura A, Pastorelli C, Barbaranelli C, Caprara GV
JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
76: (2) 258-269 FEB 1999
Abstract: This prospective research analyzed how different facets of perceived self-efficacy operate in concert within a network of sociocognitive influences in childhood depression. Perceived social and academic inefficacy contributed to concurrent and subsequent depression both directly and through their impact on academic achievement, prosocialness, and problem behaviors. In the shorter run, children were depressed over beliefs in their academic inefficacy rather than over their actual academic performances. In the longer run, the impact of a low sense of academic efficacy on depression was mediated through academic achievement, problem behavior, and prior depression. Perceived social inefficacy had a heavier impact on depression in girls than in boys in the longer term; Depression was also more strongly linked over time for girls than for boys.

Social cognitive theory: An agentic perspective
Bandura A
ASIAN JOURNAL OF SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
Special Issue: Theoretical and methodological advances in social psychology. Vol 2(1), Apr 1999, 21-41
Abstract: Presents the basic tenets of social cognitive theory. It is founded on a causal model of triadic reciprocal causation in which personal factors in the form of cognitive, affective and biological events, behavioral patterns, and environmental events all operate as interacting determinants that influence one another bidirectionally. Within this theory, human agency is embedded in a self theory encompassing self-organizing, proactive, self-reflective and self-regulative mechanisms. Human agency can be exercised through direct personal agency; through proxy agency relying on the efforts of intermediaries; and by collective agency operating through shared beliefs of efficacy, pooled understandings, group aspirations and incentive systems, and collective action. Personal agency operates within a broad network of sociostructural influences. In these agentic transactions, people are producers as well as products of social systems. Growing transnational imbeddedness and interdependence of societies are creating new social realities in which global forces increasingly interact with national ones to shape the nature of cultural life.

Social cognitive theory of gender development and differentiation
Bussey K, Bandura A
PSYCHOLOGICAL REVIEW
106: (4) 676-713 OCT 1999
Abstract: Human differentiation on the basis of gender is a fundamental phenomenon that affects virtually every aspect of people's daily Lives. This article presents the social cognitive theory of gender role development and functioning. It specifies how gender conceptions are constructed from the complex mix of experiences and how they operate in concert with motivational and self-regulatory mechanisms to guide gender-linked conduct throughout the life course. The theory integrates psychological and sociostructural determinants within a unified conceptual structure. In this theoretical perspective, gender conceptions and roles are the product of a broad network of social influences operating interdependently in a variety of societal subsystems. Human evolution provides bodily structures and biological potentialities that permit a range of possibilities rather than dictate a fixed type of gender differentiation. People contribute to their self-development and bring about social charges that define and structure gender relationships through their agentic actions within the interrelated systems of influence.

Social cognitive theory of personality
Bandura A
In L. A. Pervin and J. P. Oliver (1999) (Eds.), Handbook of personality: Theory and research (2nd ed.)
pp. 154-196. New York: Guilford Press
Abstract: Addresses the personal determinants and mechanisms of human functioning from the perspective of social cognitive theory (A. Bandura, 1986). The author examines an agentic sociocognitive view of personality, in which people are self-organizing, proactive, self-reflecting, and self-regulating, not just reactive organisms shaped by external events, and dualistic conceptions of personality. Fundamental human capabilities are reviewed such as symbolizing, vicarious learning, forethought, self-regulation, and self-reflection. Different forms of agency, personality as an integrated self system, and the nature of human nature, are discussed as they relate to the social cognitive theory of personality.

Social cognitive theory of personality
Bandura A
In D. Cervone & Y. Shoda, (1999) (Eds.), The coherence of personality
pp. 185-241. New York : Guilford Press
Abstract: This chapter addresses the personal determinants and mechanisms of human function from the perspective of social cognitive theory. Topics discussed include: an agentic view of personality (triadic reciprocal causation, fortuitous determinants in causal structures, personal determinants versus individual differences); discarding dualistic conceptions of personality (duality of self as agent and object, duality of structure and process of the self system, duality of social structure and personal agency); fundamental human capabilities (symbolizing capability, vicarious capability, forethought capability, self-regulatory capability, self-reflective capability); different forms of agency (proxy agency, perceived efficacy in collective agency, underminers of collective efficacy in changing societies); and personality as an integrated self system (unity of agency and personal identity, the nature of human nature).

A sociocognitive analysis of substance abuse: An agentic perspective
Bandura A
PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE
10: (3) 214-217 MAY 1999
Abstract: Some theories grossly overpredict psychopathology and the inability to overcome substance abuse. This is because they favor a reactive risk model rather than a proactive mastery model. This article presents a social-cognitive theory of substance abuse. The exercise of self-regulatory agency plays a central role in this approach. Perceived self-efficacy is the foundation of human agency. Unless people believe they can produce desired effects by their actions, they have little incentive to act. Self-efficacy beliefs promote desired changes through cognitive, motivational, affective, and choice processes. Perceived self-efficacy exerts its effects on every phase of personal change--the initiation of efforts to overcome substance abuse, achievement of desired changes, recovery from relapses, and long-term maintenance of a drug-free life. A major explanatory challenge is resumption of drug abuse by abstinent individuals after withdrawal symptoms are long gone to serve as motivations. Assessments of perceived efficacy identify areas of vulnerability and provide guides for treatment. Substance abuse is a social problem, not just a personal one. Reducing substance abuse also requires policy initiatives and social remedies achieved through the exercise of collective efficacy.

1998

Exercise of agency in personal and social change
Bandura A
In E. Sanavio (1998) (Ed.), Behavior and cognitive therapy today
pp. 1-29. Oxford, UK: Elsevier
Abstract: The value of a psychological theory is judged by three criteria. It must have explanatory power, it must have predictive power, and, in the final analysis, it must demonstrate operative power to improve the human condition. Well-founded theory provides solutions to human problems. In this chapter, the author has reviewed an agentic theoretical approach to human understanding and betterment and traced some of the applications of this theory at both the individual and macrosocial levels. Topics discussed include: behavioristic model, mind as digital computer, connectionist model of mind, marked decline of intervention research, physicalistic theory of human agency, mechanisms of human agency, multifaceted causal structure, efficacy determination of motivators, self-efficacy in threat management and affect regulation, self-efficacy and phobic behavior, self-efficacy pathways to depression, multifaceted applicability of social cognitive theory, reactive risk models vs. proactive mastery models, devising efficacious models with social utility, and macrosocial applications.

Exploration of fortuitous determinants of life paths
Bandura A
PSYCHOLOGICAL INQUIRY
9: (2) 95-99 1998
Abstract: Comments on D. L. Krantz's article on the disregard of fortuitous influences in the causal structures of the social sciences, and the asymmetry in the acknowledgement of fortuitous influences in narratives of beneficial happenings and misfortune. This commentary focuses mainly on socially mediated happenstances. Asymmetry in the acknowledgement of fortuity, conceptual receptivity to fortuitous events, foretelling fortuitous happenings vs predicting and altering their impact, utilizing beneficial fortuities, and defusing detrimental ones are discussed.

Health promotion from the perspective of social cognitive theory
Bandura A
PSYCHOLOGY & HEALTH
13: (4) 623-649 1998
Abstract: This article examines health promotion and disease prevention from the perspective of social cognitive theory. The areas of overlap with some of the most widely applied psychosocial models of health are identified. The models of health promotion and disease prevention have undergone several generational changes. We have shifted from trying to scare people into health, to rewarding them into health, to equipping them with self-regulatory skills to manage their health habits, to shoring up their habit changes with dependable social supports. These transformations have evolved a multifaceted approach that addresses the reciprocal interplay between self-regulatory and environmental determinants of health behavior. Social cognitive theory addresses the sociostructural determinants of health as well as the personal determinants. A comprehensive approach to health promotion requires changing the practices of social systems that have widespread detrimental effects on health rather than solely changing the habits of individuals. Further progress in this field requires building new structures for health promotion, new systems for risk reduction and greater emphasis on health policy initiatives. People's beliefs in their collective efficacy to accomplish social change, therefore, play a key role in the policy and public health approach to health promotion and disease prevention.

Impact of adolescents' perceived self-regulatory efficacy on familial communication and antisocial conduct
Caprara GV, Scabini E, Barbaranelli C, Pastorelli C, Regalia C, Bandura A
EUROPEAN PSYCHOLOGIST
Vol 3(2), 1998, 125-132
Abstract: Tested the hypothesis that perceived self-efficacy to resist peer pressure for high-risk activities is related to transgressive conduct, both directly and through the mediation of open familial communication. 324 adolescents (aged 14-18 yrs) rated their self-regulatory efficacy, openness of communication with parents, and their involvement in delinquent conduct and substance abuse. Results of structural equation modeling confirm that a high sense of efficacy to ward off negative peer influences was accompanied by open communication with parents about activities outside the home and by low engagement in delinquent conduct and substance abuse. Both the posited direct and mediated paths of influences were replicated for males and females, although girls exhibited a slightly weaker direct relationship between self-regulatory efficacy and transgressive conduct.

The measurement of self-efficacy in school-age children: A preliminary contribution. [Italian]
Pastorelli, C., Caprara, G. V., & Bandura, A.
Original Title: La misura dell'autoefficacia percepita in eta scolare. Un contributo preliminare
ETA EVOLUTIVA
No 61 Oct 1998, 28-40
Abstract: Conducted a study aimed at validating the Italian version of the Children's Perceived Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (A. Bandura, 1993). Based on the theory of self-efficacy and the exercise of control (A. Bandura, 1997), 7 scales reflecting different domains of children's functioning (self-efficacy for school success, self-efficacy for the regulation of learning, self-efficacy for recreational activities, regulatory self-efficacy [self-efficacy for resisting negative peer pressure], self-efficacy for meeting other expectations, social self-efficacy, and assertive self-efficacy) were administered to 254 4th-5th graders and 476 junior high school students aged 9-16 yrs in Italy. Peer nomination and self-assessment of prosocial behavior, emotional instability, physical and verbal aggression, and depression also were used. The results support the multidimensionality of the construct of self-efficacy and indicate the existence of 4 factors: self-efficacy in the school context, social self-efficacy, regulatory self-efficacy, and self-efficacy in sports.

Personal and collective efficacy in human adaptation and change
Bandura A.
In J. G. Adair & D. Belanger (1998) (Eds.), Advances in psychological science, Vol. 1: Social, personal, and cultural aspects
pp. 51-71. Hove, England: Psychology Press/Erlbaum (Uk) Taylor & Francis
Abstract: Perceived self-efficacy operates as a central self-regulatory mechanism of human agency. People's beliefs that they can produce desired effects by their actions influence the choices they make, their aspirations, level of effort and perseverance, resilience to adversity, and vulnerability to stress and depression. This chapter addresses the origins of efficacy beliefs, the processes through which they operate, their diverse effects, and the modes by which they can be modified. /// Human adaptation and change are rooted in social systems. Personal agency through efficacy belief operates within a broad network of sociostructural influences. In these agentic transactions, people are producers as well as products of social systems. People often have to work together to shape their social future. Self-efficacy theory, therefore, extends the conception of agent causality to people's beliefs in their collective efficacy to produce desired outcomes. With growing transnational interdependencies, life in the societies of today is now shaped by events in distant places. The globalization of human interconnectedness presents new challenges for people to exercise some control over their personal destinies and national life.

1997

Self-efficacy: The exercise of control
Bandura A
1997, New York: W. H. Freeman
604 pages
TOC: Preface, Theoretical perspectives, The nature and structure of self-efficacy, Sources of self-efficacy, Mediating processes, Developmental analysis of self-efficacy, Cognitive functioning, Health functioning, Clinical functioning, Athletic functioning, Organizational functioning, Collective efficacy, References, Name index, Subject index. ISBN: 0-7167-2626-2 (hardcover); 0-7167-2850-8 (paperback)
Abstract: jacket: "Self Efficacy" is the result of over 20 yrs of research by the psychologist, Albert Bandura, and the ever-widening circle of related research that has emerged from Bandura's original work. Intended for advanced undergraduate or graduate courses, or for professional use, the book is based on Bandura's theory that those with high self-efficacy expectancies--the belief that one can achieve what one sets out to do—are healthier, more effective, and generally more successful than those with low self-efficacy expectancies.

The anatomy of stages of change
Bandura A
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HEALTH PROMOTION
12: (1) 8-10 SEP-OCT 1997

1996

Enhancing human functioning the social cognitive way
Bandura A
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY
31: (3-4) 4631-4631 1996

Failures in self-regulation: Energy depletion or selective disengagement?
Bandura A
PSYCHOLOGICAL INQUIRY
7: (1) 20-24 1996
Abstract: Examines R. Baumeister and T. Heatherton's cognitive model of self-regulation and proposes an ecologically oriented sociocognitive theory of self-regulation. It is argued that while some of the social transgressions described in their article may result from lapses in the exercise of personal conduct, most transgressive conduct represents selective disengagement of self-sanctions rather than a breakdown in self-regulation. A model of the major points at which moral disengagement from the self-regulatory system can occur is presented, and it is argued that disengagement is often a selective process resulting from an efficient self-regulation.

Mechanisms of moral disengagement in the exercise of moral agency
Bandura A, Barbaranelli C, Caprara GV
JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
71: (2) 364-374 AUG 1996
Abstract: This research examined the role of mechanisms of moral disengagement in the exercise of moral agency. Regulatory self-sanctions can be selectively disengaged from detrimental conduct by converting harmful acts to moral ones through linkage to worthy purposes, obscuring personal causal agency by diffusion and displacement of responsibility, misrepresenting or disregarding the injurious effects inflicted on others, and vilifying the recipients of maltreatment by blaming and dehumanizing them. The study examined the structure and impact of moral disengagement on detrimental conduct and the psychological processes through which it exerts its effects. Path analyses reveal that moral disengagement fosters detrimental conduct by reducing prosocialness and anticipatory self-censure and by promoting cognitive and affective reactions conducive to aggression. The structure of the paths of influence is very similar for interpersonal aggression and delinquent conduct. Although the various mechanisms of moral disengagement operate in concert, moral reconstruals of harmful conduct by linking it to worthy purposes and vilification of victims seem to contribute most heavily to engagement in detrimental activities.

Moral disengagement in the perpetration of inhumanities
Bandura A
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY
31: (3-4) 3881-3881 1996 Abstract: See 1999 article in Personality & Social Psychology Review above.

Multifaceted impact of self-efficacy beliefs on academic functioning
Bandura A, Barbaranelli C, Caprara GV, Pastorelli C
CHILD DEVELOPMENT
67: (3) 1206-1222 JUN 1996
Abstract: This research analyzed the network of psychosocial influences through which efficacy beliefs affect academic achievement. Parents' sense of academic efficacy and aspirations for their children were linked to their children's scholastic achievement through their perceived academic capabilities and aspirations. Children's beliefs in their efficacy to regulate their own learning and academic attainments, in turn, contributed to scholastic achievement both independently and by promoting high academic aspirations and prosocial behavior and reducing vulnerability to feelings of futility and depression. Children's perceived social efficacy and efficacy to manage peer pressure for detrimental conduct also contributed to academic attainments but through partially different paths of affective and self-regulatory influence. The impact of perceived social efficacy was mediated through academic aspirations and. a low level of depression. Perceived self-regulatory efficacy was related to academic achievement both directly and through adherence to moral self-sanctions for detrimental conduct and problem behavior that can subvert academic pursuits. Familial socioeconomic status was linked to children's academic achievement only indirectly through its effects on parental aspirations and children's prosocialness. The full set of self-efficacy, aspirational, and psychosocial factors accounted for a sizable share of the variance in academic achievement.
Abstract from PsychFirst: Proposed and empirically tested a conceptual model of the network of psychosocial influences (socioeconomic, familial, peer, and self processes) through which efficacy beliefs affect academic achievement. 279 11-14 yr olds were administered sets of scales measuring the variables of interest. Results verify the diverse paths of influence through which efficacy beliefs and aspirations contribute to children's achievement. Most of the links in the postulated causal structure were empirically corroborated. The model provides a better fit than a plausible alternative model or ones in which a key path is deleted. Parent's beliefs in their efficacy to promote their children's intellectual development and the educational aspirations they hold for them were both influential factors in the academic process. The findings have a number of educational applications and contribute new knowledge about the psychosocial paths through which influences flow.

Ontological and epistemological terrains revisited
Bandura A
JOURNAL OF BEHAVIOR THERAPY AND EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHIATRY
27: (4) 323-345 DEC 1996
Abstract: The present commentary discusses the scientific legitimacy of theories confined to correlations of observables and those that specify the mechanisms governing the relations between observable events, Operant analysts frame the theoretical differences misleadingly when the operant approach is portrayed as addressing environmental influence for effecting change but cognitive approaches are depicted as disembodied from environmental influences and thus can only provide correlates with action, In point of fact, both approaches encompass environmental influences. The major issues in contention are whether human thinking is entirely or only partially shaped by environmental influences; whether the influences in the person-environment relation flow unidirectionally or bidirectionally; and whether human thought serves a determinative function or is a functionless epiphenomenon, Proponents of epiphenomenalism regard other people's thinking as functionless by-products of conditioned responses, but present their own thoughts on matters as the right ones that provide functional guides for structuring interventions. This commentary discusses the self-negating nature of the epiphenomenalism argument. It also corrects misunderstandings and misrepresentations of self-efficacy theory.

Personal and collective efficacy in human adaptation and change
Bandura A
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY
31: (3-4) 3251-3251 1996

Reflections on human agency
Bandura, A
In J Georgas & M Manthouli (1996) (Eds.), Contemporary psychology in Europe, p. 194-210. Seattle, WA: Hogrefe & Huber
Abstract: prologue: presents [the author's] current thoughts on his work regarding self-efficacy: chapter: mechanisms of personal agency / exercise of moral agency / human agency and disputable dualities / integrated causal structure / exercise of agency in evolving technologies / perceived efficacy in collective agency / underminers of collective efficacy in changing societies / bidirectionality of social influence.

Regulation of cognitive processes through perceived self-efficacy
Bandura A
In GH Jennings (1996) (Ed.), Passages beyond the gate, p. 96-107. Needham Heights, MA: Simon & Schuster
Abstract: Addresses a number of issues concerning the extension of self-efficacy theory to memory functioning / these include the following: the multidimensionality and measurement of perceived memory capabilities; the veridicality of memory self-appraisal; the efficacious exercise of personal control over memory functioning; the psychosocial processes by which people preserve a favorable sense of memory self-efficacy over the life span; and strategies for generalizing the impact of training in memory skills / analytic thinking / anticipatory cognitive simulations / cognitive motivation / intrusive affective arousal / assessment of self-percepts of efficacy / active producers vs passive predictors of performance accomplishments / omnibus vs domain-linked assessments / veridicality of self-appraisal: self-aiding or self-limiting / efficacy-activated intervening processes / perceived self-efficacy and the utilization of cognitive skills / maintaining perceived self-efficacy over the life span.

1995

Self-efficacy in changing societies
A Bandura (Ed.), 1995
New York: Cambridge University Press
xv, 334. ISBN: 0-521-47467-1 (hardcover)
Abstract: (from the jacket) "Self-efficacy in Changing Societies" analyzes the diverse ways in which beliefs of personal efficacy operate within a network of sociocultural influences to shape life paths. The chapters . . . cover such matters as development of personal agency in infancy, competency through the life span, and the role of familial, educational, and cross-cultural factors in the social construction of personal and collective efficacy. The volume addresses important issues of human adaptation and change that will be of considerable interest to people in the fields of developmental psychology, education, health, and sociology.

Comments on the crusade against the causal efficacy of human thought
Bandura A
JOURNAL OF BEHAVIOR THERAPY AND EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHIATRY
26: (3) 179-190 SEP 1995
Abstract: Hawkins reiterates the familiar behavioristic doctrine that psychology should banish factors that cannot be directly observed. He seems to be unaware that the very operant theory he is espousing is heavily invested in internal determinants that do not lend themselves to direct observation. Because behavior is often unaffected by its immediate situational antecedents and consequences, operant analysts are turning increasingly to internalized determinants of behavior, such as the residues of past reinforcements. These internalized determinants are not directly observable or measurable. They are inferred organismic states. Hawkins invokes the standard behavioristic arguments that, like other cognitive events, beliefs of personal efficacy are epiphenomenal by-products of conditioned responses. The paradigms used to verify the causal contribution of efficacy beliefs to performance renders this claim empirically baseless. Efficacy beliefs are systematically raised to differential levels by means that involve no performances or by bogus feedback that is either unrelated to performance or is contrary to performance. In none of these paradigms are instated efficacy beliefs reflections of performance, but they are uniformly good predictors of subsequent performance. Epiphenomenal assertions are self-destruct arguments.

Exercise of personal and collective efficacy in changing societies
Bandura A
In A. Bandura (1995) (Ed.), Self-efficacy in changing societies (pp. 1-45). New York: Cambridge University Press. 334 pp. ISBN: 0-521-47467-1 (hardcover) Abstract: (from the preface) addresses central issues concerning the nature and function of beliefs of personal efficacy / examines the different sources of efficacy beliefs and the psychological processes through which they exert their effects / [discusses] the influential role played by efficacy beliefs in different spheres of human functioning / these matters concern the heavy demands on parenting efficacy under the changing structure of family systems; the principal ways in which efficacy beliefs operate as key contributors to the intellectual development of children; and the way in which such beliefs shape occupational development and pursuits and affect the quality of health and psychological well-being.

On rectifying conceptual ecumenism
Bandura A
In J. E. Maddux (1995) (Ed.), Self-efficacy, adaptation, and adjustment (pp. 347-375). New York: Plenum
Abstract: Comments on I. Kirsch's discussion of self-efficacy and outcome expectancies constructs & theory.

1994

Impact of self-regulatory influences on writing course attainment
Zimmenman BJ, Bandura A
AMERICAN EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL
31: (4) 845-862 WIN 1994
Abstract: The role of self-efficacy beliefs concerning the academic attainment and regulation of writing, academic goals, and self-standards on writing course achievement was studied with college freshman using path analysis. These self-regulatory variables were measured at the beginning of a writing course and related to final course grades. Students' verbal scholastic aptitude and level of instruction were also included in the analysis. Perceptions of self-efficacy for writing influenced both perceived academic self-efficacy and personal standards for the quality of writing considered self-satisfying. High personal standards and perceived academic self-efficacy, in turn, fostered adoption of goals for mastering writing skills. Neither level of writing instruction nor verbal aptitude had any direct link to course grades. Verbal aptitude affected writing course outcomes only indirectly by its influence on personal standards. Perceived academic self-efficacy influenced writing grade attainments both directly and through its impact on personal goal setting. These paths of influence were interpreted in terms of a social cognitive theory of academic self-regulation.

Influence of social reinforcement and the behavior of models in shaping children's moral judgments
Bandura A, McDonald FJ
In B. Puka (1994) (Ed.), Defining perspectives in moral development, Vol. 1. (pp. 136-143). New York: Garland
Abstract: (from the chapter) test the relative efficacy of social reinforcement and modeling procedures in modifying moral judgmental responses considered by J. Piaget to be age-specific / [Ss were 5-11 yr olds] / 1 group of children observed adult models who expressed moral judgments counter to the group's orientation, and the children were reinforced with approval for adopting the model's evaluative responses / a 2nd group observed the models but received no reinforcement for matching their behavior / a 3rd group of children had no exposure to models but were reinforced for moral judgments that ran counter to their dominant evaluative tendencies / following the treatments, the children were tested for generalization effects.

Regulative function of perceived self-efficacy
Bandura A
In MG Rumsey & CB Walker (1994) (Ed.), Personnel selection and classification (pp. 261-271). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Abstract: (from the chapter) self-efficacy beliefs regulate human functioning through 4 major types of processes: cognitive, motivational, emotional, and selection / document the diverse ways in which perceived self-efficacy affects the quality of human functioning at the individual level.

Social cognitive theory and exercise of control over HIV infection
Bandura A
In RJ DiClemente & JL Peterson (1994) (Eds.), Preventing AIDS: Theories and methods of behavioral interventions, (pp. 25-59). New York: Plenum.
Abstract: Offers a conceptual model and supporting research linking social cognitive theory and perceived self-efficacy to health-promoting and health-impairing behavior, specifically in the control of sexual and drug activities that will reduce the risk of AIDS and HIV infection. (from the chapter) perceived self-efficacy and adoption of health practices / components of effective self-directed change [informational component, development of self-protective skills and controlling self-efficacy, enhancement of social proficiency and resiliency of self-efficacy, social supports for personal social change] / prevention of behavioral lapses / attitudinal impediments to development of psychosocial models / immunologic effects of coping efficacy.

Social cognitive theory of mass communication
Bandura A
In J Bryant & D Zillmann (1994) (Eds.), Media effects: Advances in theory and research (pp. 61-90). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum
Abstract: (from the chapter) because of the influential role the mass media play in society, understanding the psychosocial mechanisms through which symbolic communication influences human thought, affect, and action is of considerable import / social cognitive theory provides a conceptual framework within which to examine the determinants and mechanisms of such effects symbolizing capability / self-regulatory capability / self-reflective capability / vicarious capability / mechanisms governing observational learning / abstract modeling / inhibitory and disinhibitory effects / acquisition and modification of affective dispositions / social construction of reality / social prompting of human behavior / dual-link versus multipattern flow of influence / social diffusion through symbolic modeling / modeling determinants of diffusion / adoption determinants / social networks and flow of diffusion.

1993

Perceived self-efficacy in cognitive development and functioning
Bandura A
EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGIST
28: (2) 117-148 SPR 1993
Abstract: In this article, I review the diverse ways in which perceived self-efficacy contributes to cognitive development and functioning. Perceived self-efficacy exerts its influence through four major processes. They include cognitive, motivational, affective, and selection processes. There are three different levels at which perceived self-efficacy operates as an important contributor to academic development. Students' beliefs in their efficacy to regulate their own learning and to master academic activities determine their aspirations, level of motivation, and academic accomplishments. Teachers' beliefs in their personal efficacy to motivate and promote learning affect the types of learning environments they create and the level of academic progress their students achieve. Faculties' beliefs in their collective instructional efficacy contribute significantly to their schools' level of academic achievement. Student body characteristics influence school-level achievement more strongly by altering faculties' beliefs in their collective efficacy than through direct affects on school achievement.

1992

Exercise of personal agency through the self-efficacy mechanism
Bandura A
In R Schwarzer (1992) (Ed.), Self-efficacy: Thought control of action (pp. 3-38). Washington, DC: Hemisphere Publishing
Abstract: (from the preface) outlines the role of self-efficacy as part of his [the author's] social cognitive theory (from the chapter) analyzes the influential role of perceived self-efficacy in agent causality / analyzes the causal function of self-efficacy beliefs and the different psychological processes through which they exert their effects efficacy-activated processes / cognitive processes / motivational processes / affective processes / selection processes / construction of self-efficacy as a self-persuasion process.

On rectifying the comparative anatomy of perceived control: Comments on "Cognates of personal control."
Bandura A
APPLIED & PREVENTIVE PSYCHOLOGY
Vol 1(2), Spr 1992, 121-126
Abstract: addresses misinterpretations of self-efficacy (SE) theory found in the discussion of cognates of personal control by C. Peterson and A. J. Stunkard. The level of generality at which SE is assessed varies depending on the scope of the explanatory and predictive demands. SE does not have reactive effects on people's affective reactions and performance attainments. Perceived SE exerts its impact on human functioning in 4 major ways: cognitive, motivational, affective, and selection processes. Social cognitive theory posits multiple sources of perceived SE and a multifaceted causal structure, rather than just vicarious influences. SE beliefs account for only part of the variance in expected outcomes when outcomes are not completely controlled by quality of performance. Locus of control and perceived SE bear little or no relation to each other, and SE beliefs influence causal attributions for outcomes.

Self-efficacy mechanism in psychobiologic functioning
Bandura A
In R Schwarzer (1992) (Ed.), Self-efficacy: Thought control of action (pp. 355-394). Washington, DC: Hemisphere Publishing
Abstract: (from the preface) provides an overview of self-efficacy mechanisms in psychobiological functioning and points to empirical evidence for biochemical effects of self-efficacy in coping with stress, such as autonomous, catecholamine, and opioid activation / research on pain control as well as on immunocompetence demonstrates that people with optimistic self-beliefs are better off and cope well / they are also at an advantage in the self-management of chronic disease and in the rehabilitation process / self-efficacy improves changes in health behaviors and thus helps to minimize health risks.

Self-motivation for academic attainment: The role of self-efficacy beliefs and personal goal-setting
Zimmerman BJ, Bandura A, Martinez-Pons M
AMERICAN EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL
29: (3) 663-676 FAL 1992
Abstract: The causal role of students' self-efficacy beliefs and academic goals in self-motivated academic attainment was studied using path analysis procedures. Parental goal setting and students' self-efficacy and personal goals at the beginning of the semester served as predictors of students' final course grades in social studies. In addition, their grades in a prior course in social studies were included in the analyses. A path model of four self-motivation variables and prior grades predicted students' final grades in social studies R = .56. Students' beliefs in their efficacy for self-regulated learning affected their perceived self-efficacy for academic achievement, which in turn influenced the academic goals they set for themselves and their final academic achievement. Students' prior grades were predictive of their parents' grade goals for them, which in turn were linked to the grade goals students set for themselves. These findings were interpreted in terms of the social cognitive theory of academic self-motivation.

Self-regulatory mechanisms governing gender development
Bussey K, Bandura A
CHILD DEVELOPMENT
63: (5) 1236-1250 OCT 1992
Abstract: This study tested predictions about development of gender-related thought and action from social cognitive theory. Children at 4 levels of gender constancy were assessed for their gender knowledge, personal gender standards, and gender-linked behavior under different situational conditions. Irrespective of gender constancy level, all children engaged in more same-sex than cross-sex typed behavior. Younger children reacted in a gender stereotypic manner to peers' gender-linked behavior but did not regulate their own behavior on the basis of personal gender standards. Older children exhibited substantial self-regulatory guidance based on personal standards. They expressed anticipatory self-approval for same-sex typed behavior and self-criticism for cross-sex typed behavior. Their anticipatory self-sanctions, in tum, predicted their actual gender-linked behavior. Neither gender knowledge nor gender constancy predicted gender-linked behavior. These results lend support to social cognitive theory that evaluation and regulation of gender-linked conduct shifts developmentally from anticipatory social sanctions to anticipatory self-sanctions rooted in personal standards.

A social cognitive approach to the exercise of control over AIDS infection
Bandura A
In RJ DiClemente (1992) (Ed.), Adolescents and AIDS: A generation in jeopardy (pp. 89-116). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Abstract: (from the preface) provides an insightful presentation of the utility of self-regulation and self-efficacy theory for behavior change [in relation to AIDS preventive behaviors] (from the chapter) components of effective self-directed change.

Social cognitive theory
Bandura, A
In R Vasta (1992) (Ed.), Six theories of child development (pp. 1-60). London, England: Jessica Kingsley
Abstract: (from the chapter) analyzes human development from the perspective of social cognitive theory / concerned with changes in the psychosocial functioning of adults as well as with those occurring in childhood model of causation [triadic reciprocal determinism, determinants of life paths] / symbolizing capability [discrete global structures of specialized cognitive competencies, language development] / vicarious capability [observational learning, development of modeling capabilities, attentional processes, representational processes, production processes, motivational processes, vicarious affective learning, gender-role development] / forethought capability [ambiguity and variability of outcome information, developmental changes in forethought, role of forethought in social and technical change, structuring behavior by response outcomes] / self-regulatory capabilities [motivational standards, social and moral standards, selective activation and disengagement of internal control] / self-reflective capability [modes of thought verification, self-efficacy appraisal, beginnings of perceived causal efficacy] / familial and social transmission models / the nature of human nature.

Social cognitive theory of social referencing
Bandura A
In S Feinman (1992) (Ed.), Social referencing and the social construction of reality in infancy (pp. 175-208). New York: Plenum
Abstract: (from the chapter) affective modeling is the major vehicle for conveying information in the process of social referencing [in child development] / addresses the mechanisms governing the different functions of affective modeling vicarious activation [vicarious activation and expressive cues, cognitive mediation of vicarious arousal, vicarious arousal and predictive relations, vicarious activation through cognitive self-arousal] / vicarious acquisition [experiential and biological preparedness, vicarious induction of social anxiety, shaping valuational proclivities through modeled preferences] / predictive regulatory function / self efficacy and controllability function [cognitive processing of vicarious efficacy information, vicariously instated self-efficacy and coping behavior, perceived self-efficacy and stress reactions, interactive but asymmetric relation]

1991

The changing icons in personality psychology
Bandura A
In JH Cantor (1991) (Ed.), Psychology at Iowa: Centennial essays (pp. 117-139). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum
Abstract: (from the chapter) comment briefly on what's doing within the vast boundaries of the sovereign domain of Personality [psychology] / Iowa Psychology Department personal causality: personal determinants versus individual differences / models of personality / computer model / self-processes / exercise of agency through perceived self-efficacy.

Human agency: The rhetoric and the reality
Bandura A
AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
46: (2) 157-162 FEB 1991
Abstract: Responds to the comments of W. T. Powers, W. Rottschaefer, and K. J. Corcoran, concerning A. Bandura's article on human agency in social cognitive theory.

The impact of conceptions of ability on self-regulatory factors and motor skill acquisition
Jourden FJ, Bandura A, Banfield JT
JOURNAL OF SPORT & EXERCISE PSYCHOLOGY
13: (3) 213-226 SEP 1991
Abstract: Tested the hypothesis that conceptions of ability affect self-regulatory processes and the acquisition rate of a perceptual-motor skill, using 48 undergraduates (aged 17-39 yrs). Ss performed a rotary pursuit task under induced cognitive sets that task performance reflected inherent aptitude or acquirable skill. Ss' perceived self-efficacy (PSE) and affective self-reactions to performances (SRTPs) were measured over a series of trials. Ss in the inherent-aptitude condition displayed no growth in PSE across phases, negative SRTPs, low interest in the activity, and a limited level of skill development. Ss in the acquirable skill condition displayed growth in PSE, positive SRTPs, widespread interest in the activity, and a high level of skill acquisition.

Self-efficacy conception of anxiety
Bandura A
In R Schwarzer & R Wicklund (1991) (Eds.), Anxiety and self-focused attention (pp. 89-110). New York: Harwood
Abstract: (from the chapter) in social cognitive theory, perceived self-efficacy to exercise control over potential threats plays a central role in anxiety arousal / threat is a relational property reflecting the match between perceived coping capabilities and potentially hurtful aspects of the environment / people who believe they can exercise control over potential threats do not engage in apprehensive thinking and are not perturbed by them / but those who believe they cannot manage threatening events that might occur experience high levels of anxiety arousal experimental analyses of the microrelation between perceived self-efficacy and anxiety arousal reveal that perceived coping inefficacy is accompanied by high levels of subjective distress, autonomic arousal and catecholamine secretion / environmental events are not always completely under personal control and most human activities contain some potential risks / the exercise of control over anxiety arousal, therefore, requires not only development of behavioral coping efficacy but also efficacy in controlling dysfunctional apprehensive cognitions / it is not frightful cognitions per se but the perceived self-inefficacy to turn them off that is the major source of anxiety arousal / analyses of the causal structure of self-protective behavior show that anxiety arousal and avoidant behavior are mainly co-effects of perceived coping inefficacy.

Self-regulation of motivation through anticipatory and self-reactive mechanisms
Bandura A
In RA Dienstbier (1991) (Ed.), Nebraska Symposium on Motivation, 1990: Current theory and research in motivation, Vol. 38. (pp. 69-164). Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press
Abstract: (from the introduction) [the author] approaches motivation through the concept of self-efficacy / suggests that both attributional approaches to motivation and traditional expectancy-value theories can be subsumed by self-efficacy / thus, where motivation seems affected by attributions, those impacts are due to the effects of the attributions on one's feeling of self-efficacy (not one's actual abilty) offers a goal-oriented approach to motivation through theory and research on long- or short-term goals and on the relation of goal attainment to intrinsic interest and one's sense of self-efficacy concerning the issue . . . of skills perceived to be fixed entities (rather than acquirable), Bandura examines the effect of those orientations on managerial efficiency interrelations of mood and emotional states on goal attainment and self-efficacy are discussed, as is the relation of self-efficacy and behavioral and cognitive control to anxiety / anxiety and avoidant behavior are seen as coeffects of low self-efficacy rather than as effects of each other [concerning] children's experience of themselves as good or bad after failure, Bandura sees parallels between areas of achievement and social motivation on the one hand and morality on the other, with both dependent upon internalized standards that are relatively consistent within the individual / the latter part of this chapter explicates that moral connection.

Self-regulatory mechanisms governing the impact of social-comparison on complex decision-making
Bandura A, Jourden FJ
JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
60: (6) 941-951 JUN 1991
Abstract: This study tested the hypothesis that different patterns of social comparison would affect performance attainments in a simulated organization through their impact on mediating self-regulatory mechanisms. Ss served as organizational decision makers under prearranged comparative feedback that they performed as well as their comparators, consistently surpassed them, achieved growing mastery, or experienced progressive decline. Progressive mastery enhanced perceived self-efficacy, efficient analytic thinking, challenging goal setting, aidful affective self-reaction, and organizational performance. Relative decline undermined these self-regulatory factors and produced a growing deterioration of organizational performance. The similar and superior social comparative patterns of influence had a supportive self-regulative and performance effect. Path analyses revealed that perceived self-efficacy, quality of analytic thinking, personal goal setting, and affective self-reactions operated as significant determinants of performance attainments.

Social cognitive theory of moral thought and action
Bandura A
In WM Kurtines & J Gewirtz (1991) (Eds.), Handbook of moral behavior and development, Vol. 1 (pp. 45-103). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum
Abstract: Presents a social cognitive theory of morality and moral development. (from the chapter) stage theories of moral reasoning / hierarchical moral superiority / prescriptive ambiguity of abstract principles / sequential typologies and multifaceted moral judgment / developmental changes in moral judgment / familial and social transmission models / multifaceted nature of moral judgment and action / social change of the moral standards of stage theories / cognitive conflict as an automotivator / moral judgment as application of multidimensional rules / relation between moral reasoning and conduct / conception of moral agency in terms of self-regulatory mechanisms / interplay of personal and social sanctions selective activation and disengagement of moral control / moral justification / euphemistic labeling / advantageous comparison / displacement of responsibility / diffusion of responsibility / disregard or distortion of consequences / dehumanization / attribution of blame / gradualistic moral disengagement / disengagement of self-sanctions and self-deception.

Social cognitive theory of self-regulation
Bandura A
ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR AND HUMAN DECISION PROCESSES
50: (2) 248-287 DEC 1991
Abstract: In social cognitive theory human behavior is extensively motivated and regulated by the ongoing exercise of self-influence. The major self-regulative mechanism operates through 3 principal subfunctions: self-monitoring of one's behavior, its determinants, and its effects; judgment of one's behavior in relation to personal standards and environmental circumstances; and affective self-reaction. Self-regulation also encompasses the self-efficacy mechanism, which plays a central role in the exercise of personal agency by its strong impact on thought, affect, motivation, and action. The same self-regulative system is involved in moral conduct, although, compared to the achievement domain, in the moral domain evaluative standards are more stable, judgmental factors more varied and complex, and affective self-reactions more intense.

Sociocognitive theory of human adaptation: A citation-classic commentary on social-learning theory
Bandura A
CURRENT CONTENTS/SOCIAL & BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES
(38) 10-10 SEP 23 1991

1990

Impact of perceived self-efficacy in copoing with stressors on components of the immune system
Wiedenfeld SA, Bandura A, Levine S, Oleary A, Brown S, Raska K
JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
59: (5) 1082-1094 NOV 1990
Abstract: Examined the impact of experimentally varied perceived self-efficacy in exercising control over stressors on components of the immunological system. Immunological changes while coping with phobic stressors were measured within an intrasubject control design that included a baseline phase, an efficacy-acquisition phase, and a maximal-efficacy phase. In each of these phases, perceived coping self-efficacy, level of autonomic and endocrine activation, and several components of the immunological system were measured. Development of strong perceived self-efficacy to control phobic stressors had an immunoenhancing effect. A slow growth of perceived self-efficacy, heart rate acceleration, and cortisol activation attenuated immunological system status during the efficacy-acquisition phase. Rapid growth of perceived self-efficacy also predicted maintenance of immunoenhancement during the maximal perceived self-efficacy phase.

Mechanisms governing empowerment effects: A self-efficacy analysis
Ozer EM, Bandura A
JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
58: (3) 472-486 MAR 1990
Abstract: This experiment tested the hypotheses that perceived coping and cognitive control self-efficacy govern the effects of personal empowerment over physical threats. Women participated in a mastery modeling program in which they mastered the physical skills to defend themselves successfully against unarmed sexual assailants. Multifaceted measures of theoretically relevant variables were administered within a staggered intragroup control design to test the immediate and long-term effects of the empowerment program and the mechanisms through which it produced its effects. Mastery modeling enhanced perceived coping and cognitive control efficacy, decreased perceived vulnerability to assault, and reduced the incidence of intrusive negative thinking and anxiety arousal. These changes were accompanied by increased freedom of action and decreased avoidant behavior. Path analyses of causal structures revealed a dual path of regulation of behavior by perceived coping self-efficacy, one mediated through perceived vulnerability and risk discernment and the other through perceived cognitive control self-efficacy and intrusive negative thinking.

Mechanisms governing organizational performance in complex decision-making environments
Wood R, Bandura A, Bailey T
ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR AND HUMAN DECISION PROCESSES
46: (2) 181-201 AUG 1990
Abstract: Tested level of organizational performance as a function of perceived self-efficacy (PSE), task complexity, assigned and self-set goals (SSGs), and analytic strategies (ASs) in managerial decision making in a simulated organization. Ss were 60 graduate business students. Organizational performance and ASs were assessed across 16 trials; self-reactive influences operating through PSE, SSGs, and acceptance of assigned goals were assessed at several points in the simulation. Assigned challenging goals had a positive effect on level of performance in the low complexity condition but not in the condition of high organizational complexity. The self-reactive influences had comparable effects on managerial performance across the differing levels of goal assignment and organizational complexity. In path analyses, PSE was positively related to effective use of ASs for discovering optimal managerial rules and level of personal goals.

Mechanisms of moral disengagement
Bandura A
In W Reich (1990) (Ed.), Origins of terrorism: Psychologies, ideologies, theologies, states of mind (pp. 161-191). New York: Cambridge University Press
Abstract: (from the introduction) explores the psychological mechanisms that enable terrorists to do what they do--in particular, to kill persons who are, by most criteria, not responsible for whatever wrong terrorists may be trying to right (from the chapter) psychosocial mechanisms through which internal control is selectively disengaged from detrimental conduct at three major points in the self-regulatory process / these include reconstructing conduct, obscuring causal agency, distorting consequences, and blaming and devaluating the targets moral justification / moral justification of counterterrorist measures / public intimidation and judgments of retaliatory violence / euphemistic labeling / moral justification and the media / disregard for, or distortion of, consequences / diverse functions and consequences of terrorism / dehumanization / power of humanization / attribution of blame / moral disengagement and self-deception.

Perceived self-efficacy in the exercise of control over AIDS infection
Bandura A
EVALUATION AND PROGRAM PLANNING
13: (1) 9-17 1990
Abstract: Analyzes the influential role played by perceived self-efficacy in the exercise of control over behavior that carries risk of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) infection. Effective programs of self-directed change require 4 major components. The 1st component is informational, designed to increase awareness and knowledge of health risks. The 2nd component is concerned with development of the social and self-regulatory skills needed to translate informed concerns into preventive action. The 3rd component is aimed at skill enhancement and building resilient self-efficacy through guided practice and corrective feedback in applying the skills in high-risk situations. The 4th component involves enlisting social supports for desired personal changes.

Perceived self-efficacy in the exercise of personal agency
Bandura A
JOURNAL OF APPLIED SPORT PSYCHOLOGY
Vol 2(2), Sep 1990, 128-163
Abstract: Self-efficacy beliefs regulate human functioning through 4 major processes: cognitive, motivational, affective, and selection processes. Efficacy beliefs are the product of a complex process of self-persuasion that relies on cognitive processing of diverse sources of efficacy information. An analysis of the research on the 4 efficacy-activated processes and on the self-efficacy mechanism in athletic accomplishments indicates that the SE mechanism plays a central role in the exercise of personal agency. It is noted that the value of a psychological theory is judged not only by its explanatory and predictive power, but also by its operational power to enhance the quality of human functioning. Social cognitive theory provides prescriptive specificity on how to empower people with the competencies, self-regulatory capabilities, and resilient self-belief of efficacy that enables them to enhance their psychological well-being and accomplishments.

Representational guidance of action-production in observational learning: A causal analysis
Carroll WR, Bandura A
JOURNAL OF MOTOR BEHAVIOR
22: (1) 85-97 MAR 1990
Abstract: Tested the hypothesis that number of model presentations and verbal coding (VC) of modeled actions affect reproduction accuracy through their effect on cognitive representation (CRP). 56 undergraduates viewed a complex action pattern either 2 or 8 times with or without VC to highlight the structure of the component actions and their temporal sequencing. Ss then received a recognition test and a pictorial-arrangement test to assess the accuracy of their CRPs of the modeled actions. Ss were then tested for their ability to reproduce the action pattern from memory. Increased exposure to modeled actions enhanced accuracy of both CRP and behavioral reproduction. VC also increased cognitive and reproduction accuracy, but only with increased exposure to the modeled actions. Causal analysis showed that the effects of multiple exposures and VC were mediated by changes in CRP accuracy.

Selective activation and disengagement of moral control
Bandura A
JOURNAL OF SOCIAL ISSUES
46: (1) 27-46 SPR 1990
Abstract: Analyzes psychological mechanisms by which moral control is selectively disengaged from inhumane conduct in ordinary and unusual circumstances. Explores the symptoms of moral exclusion as described in the literature. Presents categories that unify theory on moral exclusion and contribute practical classifications for use in empirical studies. Asserts that moral conduct is motivated and regulated mainly by the ongoing exercise of self-reactive influence. However, self-regulatory mechanisms do not operate unless they are activated, and there are different psychological mechanisms by which moral control can be selectively activated or disengaged from inhumane conduct. Self-sanctions can be disengaged by (1) reconstruing detrimental conduct through moral justification, euphemistic labeling, and advantageous contrast with other inhumanities; (2) obscuring personal agency in detrimental activities through diffusion and displacement of responsibility; (3) disregarding or misrepresenting the harmful consequences of inhumane conduct; and (4) blaming and dehumanizing the victims. To function humanely, societies must establish effective social safeguards against moral disengagement practices that foster exploitive and destructive conduct.

Some reflections on reflections
Bandura A
PSYCHOLOGICAL INQUIRY
Vol 1(1), 1990, 101-105
Abstract: Responds to reviews by J. F. Kihlstrom and J. M. Harackiewicz, R. M. Lerner, and D. H. Meichenbaum of A. Bandura's (1986) Social Foundations of Thought and Action: A Social Cognitive Theory. The reply focuses on (1) the nature of the causal structure of social cognitive theory, (2) the experience of developmental psychologists with causal models emphasizing person-context interactions, and (3) the multidimensional nature of perceived self-efficacy, which raises the general issue of how personal causality is best conceptualized and assessed.

1989

Effect of perceived controllability and performance standards on self-regulation of complex decision-making
Bandura A, Wood R
JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
56: (5) 805-814 MAY 1989
Abstract: Tested the hypothesis that perceived controllability and stringency of performance standards would affect self-regulatory mechanisms governing performance attainments of a simulated organization. Ss who managed the simulated organization under a cognitive set that organizations are not easily controllable displayed low perceived self-efficacy, even when standards were within easy reach, and lowered their organizational goals. Ss who operated under a cognitive set that organizations are controllable maintained a strong sense of self-efficacy, set increasingly challenging goals, and exhibited effective analytic thinking. Divergent changes in these self-regulatory factors were accompanied by differences in organizational attainments. Path analyses revealed that perceived self-efficacy, which was affected by prior accomplishments, influenced subsequent organizational performance through its effects on analytic strategies. After further experience, the performance system was regulated more extensively and intricately by Ss' self-conceptions of efficacy. Perceived self-efficacy affected subsequent organizational attainments both through its influence on personal goal challenges. Personal goals, enhanced organizational attainments directly and through mediation of analytic strategies.

Exercise of control through self-belief: A citation classic commentary on Self-Efficacy: Towara a Unifying Theory of Behavioral Change
Bandura A
CURRENT CONTENTS/SOCIAL & BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES
(20) 14-14 MAY 15 1989

Human agency in social cognitive theory
Bandura A
AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
44: (9) 1175-1184 SEP 1989
Abstract: The present article examines the nature and function of human agency within the conceptual model of triadic reciprocal causation. In analyzing the operation of human agency in this interactional causal structure, social cognitive theory accords a central role to cognitive, vicarious, self-reflective, and self-regulatory processes. The issues addressed concern the psychological mechanisms through which personal agency is exercised, the hierarchical structure of self-regulatory systems, eschewal of the dichotomous construal of self as agent and self as object, and the properties of a nondualistic but nonreductional conception of human agency. The relation of agent causality to the fundamental issues of freedom and determinism is also analyzed.

Impact of conceptions of ability on self-regulatory mechanisms and complex decision-making
Wood R, Bandura A
JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
56: (3) 407-415 MAR 1989
Abstract: Examined whether induced conceptions of ability as a stable entity or as an acquirable skill would affect self-regulatory mechanisms governing performance in a simulated organization. Ss served as managerial decision makers who had to match employees to subfunctions and to discover and apply managerial rules to achieve a difficult level of organizational performance. Ss who performed the task under an entity conception of ability suffered a loss in perceived self-efficacy (PSE), lowered their organizational goals (OGs), and became less efficient in their analytic strategies (ASs). Ss who managed the organization under an acquirable skill conception of ability sustained their PSE set challenging OGs and used ASs effectively. These divergences in self-regulatory factors were accompanied by substantial differences in organizational performance. Path analysis revealed that PSE had both a direct effect on organizational performance and an indirect effect through its influence on ASs. Personal goals also affected organizational performance through the mediation of ASs. The relation of prior organizational performance to subsequent performance was mediated entirely by the combined influence of the self-regulatory factors.

Perceived self-efficacy in the exercise of control over AIDS infection
Bandura A
In VM Mays & G Albee (1989) (Eds.), Primary prevention of AIDS: Psychological approaches, Vol. 13 (pp. 128-141). Newbury Park, CA: Sage
Abstract: (from the chapter) prevention of infection with the AIDS [Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome] virus requires people to exercise influence over their own motivation and behavior to achieve self-directed change, people need to be given not only reasons to alter risky habits but also the means and resources to do so / effective self-regulation of behavior is not achieved by an act of will / it requires certain skills in self-motivation and self-guidance perceived self-efficacy is concerned with people's beliefs that they can exert control over their motivation and behavior and over their social environment / people's beliefs about their capabilities affect what they choose to do, how much effort they mobilize, how long they will persevere in the face of difficulties, whether they engage in self-debilitating or self-encouraging thought patterns, and the amount of stress and depression they experience in taxing situations components of effective self-directed change / social supports for personal change / attitudinal impediments to development of psychosocial models.

Regulation of cognitive processes through perceived self-efficacy
Bandura A
DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY
25: (5) 729-735 SEP 1989
Abstract: Addresses issues concerning the extension of self-efficacy theory to memory functioning. Issues include perceived memory capabilities, memory self-appraisal, personal control over memory functioning, preservation of a favorable sense of memory self-efficacy, and strategies for generalizing the impact of training in memory skills. The articles included in the special series in this issue of Developmental Psychology demonstrate that perceived self-efficacy for memory functioning is an important facet of metamemory. Self-beliefs of efficacy can enhance or impair performance through their effects on cognitive, affective, or motivational intervening processes. This commentary addresses a number of issues concerning the extension of self-efficacy theory to memory functioning. These include the following: the multidimensionality and measurement of perceived memory capabilities; the veridicality of memory self-appraisal; the efficacious exercise of personal control over memory functioning; the psychosocial processes by which people preserve a favorable sense of memory self-efficacy over the life span; and strategies for generalizing the impact of training in memory skills.

Self-regulation of motivation and action through internal standards and goal systems
Bandura A
In LA Pervin (1989) (Ed.), Goal concepts in personality and social psychology (pp. 19-85). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum
Abstract: (from the chapter) forms of cognitive motivators attribution theory / expectancy-value theory goal theory / self-reactive influences as mediators of goal motivation / self-regulation and the negative feedback model / impact of goal discrepancy on perceived self-efficacy / goal properties and self-motivation / hierarchical structure of goal systems / generic goal orientations / self-regulatory dynamics in organizational accomplishments / aspirational standards, achievement motives, and external incentives / affective consequences of goal discrepancies self-regulation through moral standards / selective activation and disengagement of internal standards / moral justification / euphemistic labeling / advantageous comparison / displacement of responsibility / diffusion of responsibility / disregard or distortion of consequences / dehumanization / attribution of blame / disengagement of self-sanctions and self-deception.

Social cognitive theory of organizational management
Wood R, Bandura A
ACADEMY OF MANAGEMENT REVIEW
14: (3) 361-384 JUL 1989
Abstract: Analyzes organizational functioning from the perspective of social cognitive theory (SCT), which explains psychosocial functioning in terms of triadic reciprocal causation (i.e., behavior, cognitive, and other personal factors and environment events operate as interacting determinants that influence each other bidirectionally). Three aspects of SCT proposed by A. Bandura (1988) are explored: the development of competencies through mastery modeling, the self-efficacy regulatory mechanism, and the self-regulation of motivation and action through goal systems. The application of SCT is illustrated in a series of experiments of complex managerial decision making, using a simulated organization.

1988

Effect of cognitive factors and motor rehearsal on observational learning
Carroll WR, Bandura A
BULLETIN OF THE PSYCHONOMIC SOCIETY
26: (6) 492-492 NOV 1988

Perceived self-efficacy in coping with cognitive stressors and opioid activation
Bandura A, Cioffi D, Taylor CB, Brouillard ME
JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
55: (3) 479-488 SEP 1988
Abstract: This experiment tested the hypothesis that perceived self-inefficacy in exercising control over cognitive stressors activates endogenous opioid systems. Subjects performed mathematical operations under conditions in which they could exercise full control over the cognitive task demands or in which the cognitive demands strained or exceeded their cognitive capabilities. Subjects with induced high perceived self-efficacy exhibited little stress, whereas those with induced low perceived self-efficacy experienced a high level of stress and autonomic arousal. Subjects were then administered either an inert saline solution or naloxone, an opiate antagonist that blocks the analgesic effects of endogenous opiates, whereupon their level of pain tolerance was measured. The self-efficacious nonstressed subjects gave no evidence of opioid activation. The self-inefficacious stressed subjects were able to withstand increasing amounts of pain stimulation under saline conditions. However, when endogenous opioid mechanisms that control pain were blocked by naloxone, the subjects were unable to bear much pain stimulation. This pattern of changes suggests that the stress-induced analgesia found under the saline condition was mediated by endogenous opioid mechanisms and counteracted by the opiate antagonist.

Self-efficacy conception of anxiety
Bandura A
ANXIETY RESEARCH
Vol 1(2), Sep 1988, 77-98
Abstract: Experimental analyses of the microrelation between perceived self-efficacy and anxiety arousal revealed that perceived coping inefficacy was accompanied by high levels of subjective distress, autonomic arousal, and catecholamine secretion. Environmental events were not always completely under personal control and most human activities contained some potential risks. The exercise of control over anxiety arousal, therefore, requires not only development of behavioral coping efficacy but also efficacy in controlling dysfunctional apprehensive cognitions. It is not frightful cognitions per se but the perceived self-inefficacy to turn them off that is the major source of anxiety arousal. Analyses of the causal structure of self-protective behavior showed that anxiety arousal and avoidant behavior were mainly co-effects of perceived coping inefficacy.

Self-regulation of motivation and action through goal systems
Bandura A
In V Hamilton & GH Bower (1988) (Eds.), Cognitive perspectives on emotion and motivation, Vol. 44. (pp. 37-61). Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer
Abstract: (from the chapter) two broad classes of motivation / cognitively based / biologically based forms of cognitive motivators / causal attributions / outcome expectancies / cognized goals the corresponding theories are attribution theory, expectancy-value theory, and goal theory, respectively forethought is translated into incentives and action through the aid of self-regulatory mechanisms self-reactive influences by which personal standards create powerful motivational effects are analyzed self-regulation / negative feedback model goal properties / self-motivation hierarchical structure of goal systems affective consequences of goal discrepancies.

1987

Cognitive determinants of observational learning: A causal analysis
Carroll WR, Bandura A
BULLETIN OF THE PSYCHONOMIC SOCIETY
25: (5) 352-352 SEP 1987

Perceived self-efficacy and pain control: Opioid and nonopioid mechanisms
Bandura A, Oleary A, Taylor CB, Gauthier J, Gossard D
JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
53: (3) 563-571 SEP 1987
Abstract: In this experiment, we tested for opioid and nonopioid mechanisms of pain control through cognitive means and the relation of opioid involvement to perceived coping efficacy. Subjects were taught cognitive methods of pain control, were administered a placebo, or received no intervention. Their pain tolerance was then measured at periodic intervals after they were administered either a saline solution or naloxone, an opiate antagonist that blocks the effects of endogenous opiates. Training in cognitive control strengthened perceived self-efficacy both to withstand and to reduce pain; placebo medication enhanced perceived efficacy to withstand pain but not reductive efficacy; and neither form of perceived self-efficacy changed without any intervention. Regardless of condition, the stronger the perceived self-efficacy to withstand pain, the longer subjects endured mounting pain stimulation. The findings provide evidence that attenuation of the impact of pain stimulation through cognitive control is mediated by both opioid and nonopioid mechanisms.

Translating cognition into action: The role of visual guidance in observational learning
Carroll WR, Bandura A
JOURNAL OF MOTOR BEHAVIOR
19: (3) 385-398 SEP 1987
Abstract: Examined the role of 2 forms of visual guidance in facilitating the translation of cognitive representations into action. 40 right-handed undergraduates matched a modeled action pattern either concurrently with the model or after the modeled display. Ss then either did or did not visually monitor their actions during tests of production accuracy in the model's absence. Concurrent matching of modeled actions or visual monitoring of productions both increased the level of observational learning. The more accurate the cognitive representation, the more skilled were Ss' reproductions of the modeled actions. After learning to convert cognition to action, Ss maintained their level of performance accuracy when modeled and visual-monitoring guidance were withdrawn. Results suggest that cognitive representation mediates response production and that corrective adjustments through visual guidance aid in the translation of conception into action.

1986

Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory
Bandura A
Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. 1986, xiii, 617. ISBN 0-13-815614-X (hardcover)
Abstract: (from the jacket) A comprehensive theory of human motivation and action from a social cognitive perspective is presented in this book. It deals with the prominent roles played by cognitive, vicarious, self-reflective, and self-regulatory processes in psychosocial functioning. The book is organized to emphasize the reciprocal causation through the interplay of cognitive, behavioral, and environmental factors. Albert Bandura systematically applies this social cognitive theory to personal and social change. Among its highlights, the book: covers a wide range of issues relating to human thought, motivation, and behavior; provides a theory of social diffusion and innovation that integrates modeling and social-network influences; shows how converging technological changes are transforming the nature and scope of human influence; [and] analyzes the determinants and processes governing personal and social change. Because of its relevance it [the book] will be of interest to readers in many different disciplines including psychology, education, sociology, communications, political science, business, and law.

Differential engagement of self-reactive influences in cognitive motivation
Bandura A, Cervone D
ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR & HUMAN DECISION PROCESSES
Vol 38(1), Aug 1986, 92-113
Abstract: Tested the hypothesis that self-reactive influences exert differential impact on motivation as a function of the level and direction of discrepancy between a comparative standard and attainments. 88 undergraduates pursued a challenging standard in a strenuous activity and received preselected feedback that their effort fell either markedly, moderately, or minimally short of the standard or that it exceeded the standard. They then recorded their perceived self-efficacy, self-evaluation, and self-set goals, whereupon their motivational level was measured. In accord with prediction, perceived self-efficacy contributed to motivation across a wide range of discrepancy conditions. Self-evaluation operated as an influential motivator only when attainments fell markedly or moderately short of a comparative standard. Self-set goals contributed to motivation at all discrepancy levels except when attainments were markedly discrepant from the standard. The relevant self-influences operating in concert at particular discrepancy levels explained a substantial amount of the variance in motivation.

The explanatory and predictive scope of self-efficacy theory
Bandura A
JOURNAL OF SOCIAL & CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY
Vol 4(3), 1986, 359-373
Special Issue: Self-efficacy theory in contemporary psychology
Abstract: Suggests that convergent evidence from the research reported in the present special issue of this journal attests to the explanatory and predictive generality of self-efficacy theory. Conceptual and empirical issues concerning the nature and function of self-percepts of efficacy are discussed.

Fearful expectations and avoidant actions as coeffects of perceived self-inefficacy
Bandura A
AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
41: (12) 1389-1391 DEC 1986
Abstract: Refutes I. Kirsch's suggestion that people take avoidant action because of expected fear. Contrary theoretical and empirical evidence is presented.

From thought to action: Mechanisms of personal agency
Bandura A
NEW ZEALAND JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY
Vol 15(1), Jun 1986, 1-17
Abstract: Discusses how thought affects motivation and action through the exercise of personal agency. The issues addressed concern the exercise of control over one's functioning founded on self-percepts of efficacy, the self-regulation of motivation by self-reactive influences arising from cognitive comparison processes, and the conception-matching process by which competencies are developed through psychological modeling. It is suggested that thought operates within a larger causal matrix of interacting determinants involving behavioral and environmental factors as well.

Classics
Must-reading for all students of self-efficacy

Self-evaluative and self-efficacy mechanisms governing the motivational effects of goal systems
Bandura A, Cervone D
JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY & SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
Vol 45(5), Nov 1983, 1017-1028
Abstract: Tested the hypothesis that self-evaluative and self-efficacy mechanisms mediate the effects of goal systems on performance motivation. These self-reactive influences are activated through cognitive comparison requiring both personal standards and knowledge of performance. 45 male and 45 female undergraduates performed a strenuous activity with either goals and performance feedback, goals alone, feedback alone, or without either factor. The condition combining performance information and a standard had a strong motivational impact, whereas neither goals alone nor feedback alone effected changes in motivation. When both comparative factors were present, the evaluative and efficacy self-reactive influences predicted the magnitude of motivation enhancement. The higher the self-dissatisfaction with substandard performance and the stronger the perceived self-efficacy for goal attainment, the greater was the subsequent intensification of effort. When one comparative factor was lacking, the self-reactive influences were differentially related to performance motivation, depending on the nature of the partial information and on the type of subjective comparative structure imposed on the activity.

Recycling misconceptions of perceived self-efficacy
Bandura A
COGNITIVE THERAPY & RESEARCH
Vol 8(3), Jun 1984, 231-255
Abstract: Addresses misconceptions concerning perceived self-efficacy by C. Eastman and J. S. Marzillier (see PA, Vol 71:28689). Individuals who regard themselves as highly efficacious act, think, and feel differently from those who perceive themselves as inefficacious. Self-percepts of efficacy thus contribute significantly to performance accomplishments rather than residing in the host organism simply as inert predictors of behaviors to come. A substantial body of converging evidence is reviewed, lending validity to the proposition that perceived self-efficacy operates as one common mechanism through which diverse influences affect human action, thought, and affective arousal.

Representing personal determinants in causal structures
Bandura A
PSYCHOLOGICAL REVIEW
Vol 91(4), Oct 1984, 508-511
Abstract: Addresses the substantive issues raised by J. E. Staddon's alternative models of causality, in response to Staddon's displeasure with what he claimed to be the present author's formalization of causal structures. The major question at issue is not the formalizability of causal processes but whether cognitive determinants of behavior are reducible to past stimulus inputs in causal structures. Evidence indicates that the residuum of past stimuli cannot serve as an adequate proxy for cognitive processes, which largely involve propositional knowledge and cognitive operations on what one knows.

Self-efficacy determinants of anticipated fears and calamities
Bandura A
JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY & SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
Vol 45(2), Aug 1983, 464-468
Abstract: Analyzed the issues raised by I. Kirsch (see PA, Vol 68:3701) regarding the role of self-percepts of coping efficacy in avoidance behavior. Evidence is reviewed that shows that people who perceive themselves as inefficacious in wielding control over potentially aversive events view such events anxiously, conjure up possible injurious consequences, and display phobic avoidance of them. Self-efficacy theory postulates an interactive, though asymmetric, relation between perceived self-efficacy and fear arousal, with self-judged efficacy exerting the greater effect. This enables people to perform activities at lower strengths of self-judged efficacy despite fear arousal and to take self-protective action without having to wait for fear arousal to prompt them to action.

The assessment and predictive generality of self-percepts of efficacy
Bandura A
JOURNAL OF BEHAVIOR THERAPY & EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHIATRY
Vol 13(3), Sep 1982, 195-199
Abstract: Corrects W. W. Tryon's misunderstanding of how self-efficacy is measured. Research bearing on the effects of social demands on efficacy-action congruence and on the predictive generality of self-percepts of efficacy is also briefly reviewed.

The psychology of chance encounters and life paths
Bandura A
AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
Vol 37(7), Jul 1982, 747-755
Abstract: Psychological theories have neglected the fundamental issue of what determines people's life paths. The thesis of this article is that chance encounters play a prominent role in shaping human lives. In a chance encounter the separate chains of events have their own causal determinants (e.g., entry skills, values, emotional ties), but their intersection occurs fortuitously. Some fortuitous encounters touch only lightly, others leave more lasting effects, and still others lead people into new life trajectories. The science of psychology cannot shed much light on the occurrence of fortuitous encounters, but it can provide the basis for predicting their impact on human lives. An analysis is presented of personal factors and milieu properties that govern the branching power of chance encounters.

Self-efficacy mechanism in human agency
Bandura A
AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
Vol 37(2), Feb 1982, 122-147
Abstract: Addresses the centrality of the self-efficacy mechanism (SEM) in human agency. SEM precepts influence thought patterns, actions, and emotional arousal. In causal tests, the higher the level of induced self-efficacy, the higher the performance accomplishments and the lower the emotional arousal. The different lines of research reviewed show that the SEM may have wide explanatory power. Perceived self-efficacy helps to account for such diverse phenomena as changes in coping behavior produced by different modes of influence, level of physiological stress reactions, self-regulation of refractory behavior, resignation and despondency to failure experiences, self-debilitating effects of proxy control and illusory inefficaciousness, achievement strivings, growth of intrinsic interest, and career pursuits. The influential role of perceived collective efficacy in social change and the social conditions conducive to development of collective inefficacy are analyzed.

In search of pure unidirectional determinants
Bandura A
BEHAVIOR THERAPY
Vol 12(1), Jan 1981, 30-40
Abstract: In analyzing self-regulation through conditional self-incentives, proponents of one-sided determinism selectively regress self-influences to prior situational control but tend to ignore the personal determinants of environmental events. A diverse body of evidence is reviewed, showing that changes commonly attributed to external reinforcement often involve a variety of interacting factors operating via self-processes. In attempts to vitiate the causal contribution of proximal self-influence to action, radical behaviorists conceptualize human actions as orchestrated by a continuous chain of external stimuli that carry the behavior to its eventual reinforcer. In the social learning analysis, anticipated eventual benefits create purpose for long-term pursuits, but it is the proximal self-influences that provide incentives and performance guides along the way. Conceptual and methodological limitations of recent studies designed to show that proximal self-incentives operate as proxy cues rather than as self-motivators are discussed.

Gauging the relationship between self-efficacy judgment and action
Bandura A
COGNITIVE THERAPY & RESEARCH
Vol 4(2), Jun 1980, 263-268
Abstract: Discusses the importance of judgments of self-efficacy. Perceived self-efficacy can have diverse effects on behavior, thought patterns, and affective arousal. People avoid tasks they believe exceed their coping capabilities, but they willingly undertake activities they judge themselves capable of managing. The microanalytic procedure for judging the relationship between efficacy judgment and action is discussed.

Tests of the generality of self-efficacy theory
Bandura A, Adams NE, Hardy AB, Howells GN
COGNITIVE THERAPY & RESEARCH
Vol 4(1), Mar 1980, 39-66
Abstract: Tested the explanatory and predictive generality of self-efficacy theory across additional treatment modalities and behavioral domains. 17 Ss (mean age 32 yrs) with snake phobias and 11 agoraphobics (mean age 47 yrs) were used. Cognizing modeled mastery of threats increased Ss' self-percepts of efficacy, which, in turn, predicted their specific performance attainments on tasks of varying threat value. Examination of efficacy probes revealed that making efficacy judgments had no effect on subsequent avoidance behavior or on fear arousal. The close congruence between changes in self-efficacy and different forms of coping behavior in the treatment of agoraphobia provides some evidence for the generality of efficacy theory across different areas of functioning. Microanalysis of anticipatory and performance fear arousal accompanying varying strengths of self-efficacy also supports the social learning conception of fear arousal in terms of perceived coping inefficacy.

Self-referent mechanisms in social learning theory
Bandura A
AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
Vol 34(5), May 1979, 439-441
Abstract: Responds to comments by J. F. Rychlak (1979), A. C. Pereboom (1979), and L. A. Olsen (1979) on A. Bandura's article on the self-system in reciprocal determinism. Comments focus on telic mechanisms in human behavior, sociobiological explanations of human behavior, and the central role of the self-system in H. S. Sullivan's (1953) theory of human behavior.

On paradigms and recycled ideologies
Bandura A
COGNITIVE THERAPY & RESEARCH
Vol 2(1), Mar 1978, 79-103
Abstract: Examines some of the ideologies underlying the theorizing, experimentation, and applications of knowledge in the field of psychological change. This analysis shows how the sickness ideology recycled under new euphemisms permeates all facets of psychological change--the conceptions of divergent behavior, social labeling practices, the modes of treatment and methodologies for studying their processes and effects, and even the structure of psychological services. Among its more pernicious consequences, this ideology undermines valuable research strategies for advancing knowledge and narrowly restricts the social contributions of psychology.

The self system in reciprocal determinism
Bandura A
AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
Vol 33(4), Apr 1978, 344-358
Abstract: Notes that explanations of human behavior have generally favored unidirectional causal models emphasizing either environmental or internal determinants of behavior. In social learning theory, causal processes are conceptualized in terms of reciprocal determinism. Viewed from this perspective, psychological functioning involves a continuous reciprocal interaction between behavioral, cognitive, and environmental influences. The major controversies between unidirectional and reciprocal models of human behavior center on the issue of self influences. A self system within the framework of social learning theory comprises cognitive structures and subfunctions for perceiving, evaluating, and regulating behavior, not a psychic agent that controls action. The influential role of the self system in reciprocal determinism is documented through a reciprocal analysis of self-regulatory processes. Reciprocal determinism is proposed as a basic analytic principle for analyzing psychosocial phenomena at the level of intrapersonal development, interpersonal transactions, and interactive functioning of organizational and social systems.

Analysis of self-efficacy theory of behavioral change
Bandura A, Adams NE
COGNITIVE THERAPY & RESEARCH
Vol 1(4), Dec 1977, 287-310
Abstract: Reports the findings of 2 experimental tests of self-efficacy theory of behavioral change. Study 1, with 10 snake-phobic 19-57 yr old Ss, investigated the hypothesis that systematic desensitization effects changes in avoidance behavior by creating and strengthening expectations of personal efficacy. Thorough extinction of anxiety arousal to visualized threats by desensitization treatment produced differential increases in self-efficacy. In accord with prediction, microanalysis of congruence between self-efficacy and performance showed self-efficacy to be a highly accurate predictor of degree of behavioral change following complete desensitization. The findings also support the view that perceived self-efficacy mediates anxiety arousal. Study 2, with 6 snake phobic Ss, investigated the process of efficacy and behavioral change during the course of treatment by participant modeling. Self-efficacy was a superior predictor of amount of behavioral improvement that phobics gained from partial mastery of threats at different phases of treatment.

And here is the classic:

Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change
Bandura A
PSYCHOLOGICAL REVIEW
Mar 77 v84, 2 p191-215
Abstract: Presents an integrative theoretical framework to explain and predict psychological changes achieved by different modes of treatment. This theory states that psychological procedures, whatever their term, alter the level and strength of self-efficacy. It is hypothesized that expectations of personal efficacy determine whether coping behavior will be initiated, how much effort will be expended, and how long it will be sustained in the face of obstacles and aversive experiences. Persistence in activities that are subjectively threatening but in fact relatively safe produces, through experiences of mastery, further enhancement of self-efficacy and corresponding reductions in defensive behavior. In the proposed model, expectations of personal efficacy are derived from 4 principal sources of information: performance accomplishments, vicarious experience, verbal persuasion, and physiological states. Factors influencing the cognitive processing of efficacy information arise from enactive, vicarious, exhortative, and emotive sources. The differential power of diverse therapeutic procedures is analyzed in terms of the postulated cognitive mechanism of operation. Findings are reported from microanalyses of enactive, vicarious, and emotive modes of treatment that support the hypothesized relationship between perceived self-efficacy and behavioral changes.

Note: This article was reprinted in R. F. Baumeister (1999) (Ed.), The self in social psychology, p. 285-298. Philadelphia, PA: Psychology Press/Taylor & Francis.


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