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SELF-EFFICACY: THE EXERCISE OF CONTROL

Albert Bandura

An outline composed by Gio Valiante
Emory University

CHAPTER 5 - DEVELOPMENTAL ANALYSIS OF SELF-EFFICACY

"Different periods of life present certain prototypic competency demands for successful functioning. Changing aspirations, time perspectives, and social arrangements over the course of the life span alter how people structure, regulate, and evaluate their lives in the lifelong journey" (163).

ORIGINS OF A SENSE OF PERSONAL AGENCY (164)

"The newborn arrives without any sense of self. The self must be socially constructed through transactional experiences with the environment" (164).

Recognition That Actions Produce Outcomes (164)

Recognition and Differentiation of the Self (167)

FAMILIAL SOURCES OF SELF-EFFICACY (168)

Impact of Early Mastery Experiences on Social and Cognitive Development (168)

Development of Self-Appraisal Skills (170)

"Evaluating personal efficacy by social comparisons involves greater complexities than do self appraisals based on direct experience" (171).

Surmounting Childhood Adversities (172)

PEERS AND THE BROADENING AND VALIDATION OF SELF-EFFICACY (172)

SCHOOL AS AN AGENCY FOR CULTIVATING SELF-EFFICACY (174)

"Inefficacy feeds on itself" (175).

"Once established, reputations are not easily changed" (175).

"Educational practices should be gauged not only by the skills and knowledge they impart for present use but also by what they do to children's beliefs about their capabilities, which affects how they approach the future. Students who develop strong beliefs in their personal efficacy are well-equipped to educate themselves when they have to rely on their own initiative" (176).

GROWTH OF SELF-EFFICACY THROUGH TRANSITIONAL EXPERIENCES OF ADOLESCENCE (177)

Management of Sexuality (179)

Management of High-Risk Activities (182)

SELF-EFFICACY CONCERNS OF ADULTHOOD (184)

"Young adulthood is a period when people have to learn to manage many new social demands arising from lasting partnerships, marital relationships, parenthood, entry into vocational career, and managing financial resources" (184).

Fulfillment of Occupational Roles (184)

Fulfillment of Family Roles (190)

Midlife Changes (196)

"Most people navigate through the middle years efficaciously. Some do not . . . adaptation in midlife is best predicted by the interplay of personal attributes and life circumstances rather than by one's age" (198).

REAPPRAISALS OF SELF-EFFICACY WITH ADVANCING AGE (198)

Heterogeneity of Cognitive Changes (199)

Memory Functioning (201)

Physical and Health Functioning (204)

Aging and the Exercise of Control (205)

Sociostructural Constraints (207)

Maintenance of Self-Efficacy with Decline in Capacity (208)


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