SELF-EFFICACY BELIEFS IN HUMAN FUNCTIONING

by Albert Bandura
from Social Foundations of Thought and Action, 1986

SELF-EFFICACY BELIEFS AFFECT HUMAN AGENCY IN DIVERSE WAYS:

  1. Choice behavior

  2. Effort expenditure and persistence

  3. Thought patterns and emotional reactions

  4. Humans as producers rather than simply foretellers of behavior

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SELF-EFFICACY JUDGMENT AND ACTION

Self-efficacy judgments are related to action, but a number of factors can affect the strength of the relationship.

"Perceived self-efficacy contributes to the development of subskills, as well as draws upon them in fashioning new behavior patterns" (p. 395).

People with high efficacy build more skills through their continued effort; people with low efficacy inhibit and retard the development of needed subskills.

  1. Disincentives and performance constraints

  2. Consequences of misjudgment

  3. Temporal disparities

  4. Faulty assessments of self-percepts or performance

  5. Misweighting requisite subskills

  6. Obscure aims and performance ambiguity

  7. Faulty self-knowledge

SOURCES OF SELF-EFFICACY INFORMATION

  1. Mastery experience (enactive attainment)

  2. Vicarious experience

  3. Social persuasion (including verbal persuasions)

  4. Physiological states

Cognitive processing of self-efficacy information

INTEGRATION OF SELF-EFFICACY INFORMATION

"In forming their efficacy judgments, people have to deal not only with different configurations of efficacy-relevant information conveyed by a given modality, but they also have to weigh and integrate efficacy information from these diverse sources. The weights assigned to different types of efficacy information may vary across different domains of activity" (p. 409). Connectedness - see the work of Milton Rokeach.

"There has been little research on how people process multidimensional efficacy information" (p. 409) or how people process multidimensional beliefs.

GENERALITY OF SELF-EFFICACY BELIEFS

Microanalytic research strategy

OF CENTRAL INTEREST TO SELF-EFFICACY THEORY
IS THE DYNAMIC INTERPLAY BETWEEN
SELF-REFERENT THOUGHT, ACTION, AND AFFECT

Incorporate the above into a theoretical perspective and rationale that permits focusing on the following questions:

  1. What are the effects of knowledge and skills brought to the tutoring situation? What are the effects of self-efficacy beliefs (personal self-efficacy and teaching efficacy) of the tutors? What are the effects of the outcome expectations of the tutors?
  2. How does the interplay among knowledge and skills, perceived efficacy, and outcome expectations affect the behavior and perceptions of the tutors?
  3. How do efficacy beliefs and outcome expectations change as a function of experience with the program? Why?

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