A Community of Scholars
Self-Efficacy at work.
A note to visitors: This page was created by Professor Frank Pajares who passed away in 2009. It is being temporarily archived here, but will eventually be migrated to other sites. Thank you for visiting.

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We must seek to cultivate the frankness in the child. This is an unassuming confidence in himself, the possession of which places him in a position to exhibit his talents in a becoming manner. ~ Immanuel Kant, Thoughts on Education
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Professor Albert Bandura

  General Information and materials at this site

"If I have the belief that I can do it,
I shall surely acquire the capacity to do it
even if I may not have it at the beginning."

~ Mahatma Gandhi ~

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  Professor Albert Bandura

The Professor at Stanford University.

    "Whether you think that you can or you can't, you're usually right."    

~ Henry Ford ~

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  Self-Efficacy and Social Cognitive Theory

If you want to learn about Prof. Bandura's social cognitive theory, you probably ought not rely on the (often flawed) translations and brief theoretical soundbites provided by others. If you don't have time for the magnus opus, read the Professor's own article below. You'll be glad you did.

"A man who doubts himself is like a man who would enlist in the ranks of his enemies and bear arms against himself. He makes his failure certain by himself being
the first person to be convinced of it."

~ Alexandre Dumas, fils ~

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  Books about self-efficacy

Self-Efficacy Beliefs of Adolescents (2006). From Adolescence and Education.
  1. Albert Bandura on Adolescent Development From an Agentic Perspective  Download
  2. Barry Zimmerman and Timothy Cleary on Adolescents' Development of Personal Agency  Download
  3. Dale Schunk and Judith Meece on the Self-Efficacy Development in Adolescence  Download
  4. Nancy Betz on Parallel Measures of Career Self-efficacy and Interests with Adolescents
  5. Steven Brown and Robert Lent on Preparing Adolescents to Make Career Decisions
  6. Robert Klassen on The Self-Efficacy of Adolescents with Learning Disabilities
  7. Anita Woolfolk Hoy and Heather Davis on Teacher Self-Efficacy and Adolescence
  8. Ralf Schwarzer and Aleksandra Luszczynska on Self-Efficacy, Adolescent Risk-Taking, and Health
  9. Gian Vittorio Caprara, Eugenia Scabini, and Camillo Regalia on Family Efficacy Beliefs and Adolescence
  10. Uichol Kim and Young-Shin Park on Influencing Academic Achievement in Collectivist Societies
  11. Gabriele Oettingen and Kristina Zosuls on Self-Efficacy of Adolescents across Culture
  12. Deborah Feltz and T. Michelle Magyar on Self-Efficacy and Youth in Sport and Physical Activity
  13. Mimi Bong on Asking the Right Questions to Assess Self-Efficacy
  14. Albert Bandura, Guide for Creating Self-Efficacy Scales
  15. Frank Pajares on Self-Efficacy During Childhood and Adolescence: Implications for Teachers and Parents
                                  Available from Amazon.com [paperback - $24] [hardcover - $48].

    "Self-confidence is the first requisite to great undertakings."    

~ Samuel Johnson ~

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  Information on Self-Efficacy Measures

Important Note: Many of the self-efficacy scales found on the web are highly problematic. Before deciding on a self-efficacy instrument, please note this caution and read carefully Professor Bandura's Guide for Creating Self-Efficacy Scales. Links offered below are to sound scales that can be trusted.

GUIDE FOR CONSTRUCTING SELF-EFFICACY SCALES: Professor Bandura has written a monograph entitled Guide for Constructing Self-Efficacy Scales (revised in 2006). In it, he deals with issues of domain specification, gradations of change, content relevance, phrasing of items, response scale, item analysis, minimizing biases in responding, assessing collective efficacy, and validation. In appendixes, Professor Bandura provides illustrative scales of Self-Efficacy to Regulage Exercise, Self-Efficacy to Regulate Eating Habits, Pain Management Self-Efficacy, Driving Efficacy, Problem-Solving Efficacy, Parental Efficacy, Teacher Self-Efficacy, and Collective Efficacy for Reading and for Mathematics, and Perceived Collective Family Efficacy.

The often-used Children's Self-Efficacy Scale [see validation studies] is also included (includes self-efficacy in enlisting social resources, self-efficacy for academic achievement, self-efficacy for self-regulated learning, self-efficacy for leisure time skills and extracurricular activities, self-regulatory efficacy, self-efficacy to meet others' expectations, social self-efficacy, self-assertive efficacy, and self-efficacy for enlisting parental and community support).

The Guide is currently available in English, Spanish, and Italian.


The English version of the 2006 Guide is Chapter 14 of the book Self-Efficacy Beliefs of Adolescents.

Available from Amazon.com [paperback] [hardcover]
and from Information Age Publishing (more expensive than amazon)You don't want to buy it here. Buy it from amazon.

For additional information, validation studies on the Children's Multidimensional Self-Efficacy Scale
and for the Spanish version of the Guide, please click here.

OTHER SELF-EFFICACY SCALES: Researchers at Emory University have adapted/adopted/created several scales in studies of motivation in school contexts and used them in numerous studies with participants from Grades 3 to college, particularly in the areas of reading, writing, language arts, mathematics (general mathematics, Algebra, Geometry, mathematics problem-solving, including the MSES-Revised), science, foreign language (reading and listening self-efficacy), computer science, and general academic. These scales include self-efficacy, sources of self-efficacy, self-concept, achievement goal orientations, help-seeking, self-handicapping, anxiety, apprehension, engagement, gender orientation, self-efficacy for self-regulation, optimism, authenticity (the impostor syndrome), and invitations. Please email for information and instrument request.



"We must place ourselves inside the heads of our students
and try to understand as far as possible
the sources and strengths of their conceptions."

~ Howard Gardner ~
The Unschooled Mind

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  Graduate Students Doing Self-Efficacy Research

Typical doctoral student responding to committee reactions to dissertation proposal."Truth be told, it is self-efficacy that drives the Ph.D. student to complete the most daunting and exhausting tasks under excruciating deadlines!" ~ James Bohn, PhD 2003, Univesity of Wisconsin [Dissertation: "The relationship of perceived leadership behaviors to organizational efficacy."]
If you find contacting the big cheeses a little intimidating (although I assure you there is no reason to feel that way, as they are receptive to inquiries and very helpful), contact other graduate students pursuing self-efficacy studies. And keep in mind what you're researching. It's self-efficacy, which helps nurture effort, perseverance, resilience, serenity, and optimism in the face of adversity. So when you hit those rough patches in your program (when you feel like our little friend on the left), be sure that self-efficacy is doing for you what you read and write that it can do for others . Click on an area below.

Academic Self-Efficacy Gifted Students Motivation Spirituality
Career Self-Efficacy Language Arts/Literacy Organizations/Business Sports/Exercise
Collective Efficacy Medical Settings Social/Psychological Teacher Self-Efficacy
Computers/Technology Mathematics/Science Special Education Other Areas

   Here is a site devoted to providing Help for Graduate Students 
The Elements of a Proposal [here in pdf] and vita info may prove useful.

    "Confidence is what you have before you understand the problem."    

~ Woody Allen ~
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  Autoeficacia en español y portugués

Atención: Professor Bandura's Self-Efficacy in Changing Societies is now available in Spanish through Desclée De Brouwer publishers, Bilbao, Spain. The book is entitled Auto-Eficacia: Cómo afrontamos los cambios de la Sociedad actual. It is part of the Biblioteca de Psicología. Social Foundations of Thought and Action: A Social Cognitive Theory is published in Spanish by Martinez Roca, Barcelona (Title: Pensamiento y accion; Book #84-270-1162-8).

Profesor Garrido MartinProfesor Eugenio Garrido MartínSeal of the University of Salamanca, Catedrático Emérito de Psicología Social, dirige un grupo dedicado a la investigación de la autoeficacia desde la Universidad de Salamanca, España. El grupo, que incluye la Profesora María Teresa Vega Rodríguez, ha hecho estudios sobre la influencia de la autoeficacia en la socialización en el Cuerpo Nacional de Policía, en la conducta de fumar, vivencia de la soledad, e intervención en problemas de familia. También está finalizada y ya para leerse la tesis de Santiago Demchenko sobre liderazgo y autoeficacia. Una alumna está comenzando una tesis sobre autoeficacia y desenganche moral, en la que se propone que la delincuencia se explica por la autoeficacia que siente el delincuente para delinquir. El año pasado, con colaboracion de profesores de la Facultad de Medicina, el grupo del Profesor Garrido recibio el premio extraordinario con una tesis sobre la autoeficacia y el cumplimiento legal de la legislación antitabaco.

Con motivo de la estancia del Profesor Bandura en Salamanca para comemorar el XXV aniversario del Departamento de Psicología de la Universidad [durante la cual recibio el Honoris Causa - see realvideo of the ceremony], una de sus conferencias ha sido publicada. Profesor Garrido Martínhizo la presentación, que consiste en exponer la evolución del pensamiento de Bandura desde sus comienzos hasta el momento presente. Muchas personas desconocen la trascendencia de la Obra de Bandura porque desconocen este proceso. Por esa razon, Profesor Garrido Martínnos envía una copia del texto íntegro con el fin de que pueda ayudar a otros profesionales.

       Albert Bandura: Voluntad Científica, por Profesor Eugenio Garrido Martín.

El Profesor también nos ofrece un escrito sobre autoeficacia y conducta de Salud. Tuvo que dar un curso sobre este tema en Sevilla. Los alumnos eran profesionales de la salud. En vez de hacer una lección teórica, se le ocurrió acudir a una experiencia que vivio durante su última estancia en Stanford cuando trabajo con Kate Lorig. Para preparar este curso revisó aquel material y noto que es un magnífico ejemplo de cómo la autoeficacia se descubre y cómo este descubrimiento modifica todo un plan de accion en la Comunidad con personas aquejadas de artríticos. La experiencia, además de ser muy bonita cuando se sigue paso a paso, es un muy buen modelo para quienes estén interesados en estos temas ó trabajan en esta area importante.

       Autoeficacia y conductas de salud: La experiencia de Kate Lorig en el centro de tratamiento de artríticos de la Universidad de Stanford, por Profesor Eugenio Garrido Martín.

En otro articulo importante, Profesor Garrido y sus colegas nos ofrecen un estudio sobre la autoeficacia y delincuencia de muchachos de 14 a 21 años.

       Autoeficacia y Delincuencia, por Profesor Eugenio Garrido Martín, Carmen Herrero Alonso, y Jaime Masip Pallejá.

Y en este capítulo, publicado en un libro homenaje a Alejandro Baratta, fundador de la criminología crítica, Profesor Garrido y sus collegas presentan una exposición que explica cómo se desarrolla en la obra de Bandura la concepción moral. y da pie a entender la obra de Bandura más allá del aprendizage vicario y de la autoeficacia. Esta es la esencia de Bandura, la que explica la gestión personal. Profesor Garrido con Albert Bandura

       Teoría Cognitiva Social de la Conducta Moral y de la Delictiva, por Profesor Eugenio Garrido Martín, Carmen Herrero Alonso, y Jaime Masip Pallejá.

       El Profesor Garrido también nos ha traducido el capítulo autobiográfico escrito por Albert Bandura.

Finally, Professor Garrido has began a blog to encourage discussion of social cognitive theory. As the Professor writes, "comienzo este blog con la intención de que quienes quieran interesarse por la teoría cognitivo social de Bandura puedan discutir en él sobre su obra y sus teorías. Interesan especialmente sus aplicaciones para mejorar la vida cotidiana de la personas. Poco a poco iré poniendo contenidos en el mismo."

Doctora Carmen Tabernero, Seal of the University of Cordoba graduada de y previamente profesora en la Universidad de Salamanca, ha publicado varios artículos con el eminente psicológo y profesor Robert Wood, de la Universidad de New South Wales, Australia. Actualmente Profesora Titular de la Facultad de de Psicología en la Universidad de Cordoba, Carmen y José Francisco Morales Domínguez participaron en el programa PSICOLOGÍA HOY en Radio UNED. El tema fue "Autoeficacia en el mundo de la empresa" y se puede escuchar pulsando aqui (requiere RealAudio). Prof. Tabernero has been managing Phd students and projects about self-efficacy and the acculturation strategies of inmigrants in Spain, the mediational role of self-efficacy on error orientation and performance in complex decision making task, the role of self-efficacy on prenvention of coercion behaviors, self-regulation and self.defeating behaviors, and the impact of group self-efficacy in the development of normative contract in decision making groups. She continues in collaboration with Prof. Wood on the study of the influence of group composition on the development of groups self-efficacy and performance. The most current project she is managing focuses on the analysis of self-efficacy on environmental resposible behaviors. The photo on the right was taken at a Conference in Mexico attended by Prof. Bandura.

Nice place, eh?Otro grupo importante trabaja desde la Universidad de Valencia, formado por la Profesora Amparo Escartí, miembra de la Facultad de Psicología, e Isabel Balager, quienes se dedican a investigar la autoeficacia en el campo del deporte. Un tercer grupo está en la Universitat Autonóma de Barcelona bajo la dirección de Francisco Villamarín Cid, quien se dedica a las aplicaciones de la autoeficacia en el campo de la salud.

Prof. SalanovaMarisa Salanova Soria, Associate Professor of Work Psychology [vea esta página], y Rosa Grau Gumbau, Universitat Jaume Iprofesoras de Psicologia Social en el Departamento de Psicologia Evolutiva, Educativa, Social y Metodologia de la Universitat Jaume I en Castellon, dirigen un grupo que estudia diversas áreas de la autoeficacia, incluyendo la autoeficacia profesional, autoeficacia relacionada con la tecnología, autoeficacia en el estrés laboral, autoeficacia colectiva en grupos de trabajadores, y la autoeficacia académica entre estudiantes universitarios. Varios artículos/capitulos se han publicado en español e inglés - lista aqui. Y ahora tienes una lista mas completa aqui, en sus paginas de WONT-Prevenció Psicosocial.

NUEVO LIBRO: Marisa makes available to both Spanish and English speakers the full text of the new book Nuevos Horizontes en la Investigacióon Sobre la Autoeficacia (2004), edited by Marisa and her colleagues at Universitat Jaume I, Rosa Grau, Isabel Martínez, Eva Cifre, Susana Llorens, and Mónica García-Renedo. Professor Bandura provided the opening chapter ("The Growing Primacy of Perceived Efficacy in Human Self-Development, Adaptation and Change"). Other contributors include Eugenio Garrido, Rocio Fernández-Ballesteros, Gian Vittorio Caprara, Francisco Villamarín, Michael West, Carmen Tabernero, Ralf Schwarzer, as well as Marisa and her colleagues.

El Profesor Edgar Bresó EsteveAlso part of the WoNT Research Team at the Universitat Jaume I en Castellon is Edgar Bresó Esteve, who has completed a dissertation entitled Well-being and Performance in Academic Settings: The Predicting Role of Self-efficacy [download as pdf file] under the supervision of Professor Salanova (Universitat Jaume I) and Wilmar B. Schaufeli (Utrecht University). Since 2006, Prof. Bresó Esteve has worked as a lecturer in the Department of Social Psychology. Here is the professor's purpose of the study in Spanish:

El objetivo general de esta tesis has sido poner a prueba un modelo ‘heurístico’ que sirva para explicar las relaciones existentes entre: las creencias de autoeficacia de los estudiantes, los obstáculos-facilitadores que los éstos perciben, sus niveles de burnout-engagement relacionados con sus estudios y su rendimiento académico. Además, también se ha puesto a prueba la eficacia de una intervención diseñada expresamente para incrementar los niveles de autoeficacia de los estudiantes universitarios. Para llevar a cabo este objetivo el modelo de descrito se ha probado parcialmente mediante 4 estudios transversales y un estudio cuasi-experimental. De este modo, los resultados descritos en esta tesis permiten articular y cuantificar la relación existente entre las variables anteriormente descritas (autoeficacia, obstáculos-facilitadores, burnout-engagement y rendimiento).
Profesora Leonor Prieto Navarro Profesora Leonor Prieto Navarro trabaja en la Facultad de Formación de Profesorado y Educación, Departamento de Didáctica y Teoría de la Educación, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid. Her special interest is teacher self-efficacy (autoeficacia docente), and she has completed two excellent papers that can be of help to all Spanish researchers investigating this area. In fact ... la Profesora ha recibido el premio de investigación pedagógica que en su decimonovena edición convocan el Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia y el Consejo General de Colegios Oficiales de Doctores y Licenciados en Filosofía y Letras y en Ciencias, por su trabajo "Las creencias de autoeficacia docente del profesorado universitario". En el acta del jurado se refleja que la profesora Prieto Navarro ha obtenido este galardón por la rigurosidad de su trabajo y su influencia en la formación del profesorado universitario. El premio se lo entregó el Secretario General de Educación, Alejandro Tiana. Congratulations Leonor!!! And here is a link to her new book: Autoeficacia del Profesor Universitario: Eficacia percibida y práctica docente, available from Narcea, S. A. de Ediciones. Here are some of her papers:

            La autoeficacia en el contexto académico. Includes extensive reference list and annotated bibliography.
            El análisis de las creencias de autoeficacia: un avance hacia el desarrollo profesional del docente (doc format).
            She also offers us an excellent document entitled Recursos para la Investigación de Autoeficacia. Wonderfully thorough and instructive! A must for all Spanish-speaking self-efficacy researchers.
            Las Creencias de Autoeficacia Docente del Profesorado Universitario, a synthesis of her doctoral dissertation.
            And here is Autoeficacia Docente del Profesorado Universitario - this is the instrument that Prof. Prieto created to assess the self-efficacy of university professors. Also available in English and Portuguese.

Professor Juan Carlos Torre also teaches Educational Psychology in the Faculty of Social and Human Sciences. Universidad Pontificia Comillas. Madrid. His dissertation, focusing on self-efficacy, self-regulation, and approaches to learning of university students, is an excellent work that contributes to the research on students' learning and the best way to support it. Here is a note just received from Leonor Prieto: Portada del libro de Prof. Torre

El Profesor Torre, fruto de su tesis, acaba de publicar un excelente libro titulado Una triple alianza para un aprendizaje universitario de calidad. En éste, hay un capítulo sobre autoeficacia, el capítulo 1, con título "La autoeficacia personal y académica," y que sigue la siguiente estructura:

1. Introducción
2. La teoría social cognitiva, marco de la autoeficacia
3. La autoeficacia personal y académica
4. La evaluación de la autoeficacia personal y académica
5. Algunas investigaciones en torno a la autoeficacia académica
6. Resumen y conclusiones del capítulo

La bibliografía es exhaustiva y recomendable. La referencia completa de la obra es: Torre Puente, J. C. (2007). Una triple alianza para un aprendizaje universitario de calidad. Madrid: Servicio de Publicaciones de la Universidad Pontificia Comillas.

Raquel Fidalgo is part of a research team under the direction of Jesús Nicasio García Sánchez, professor of educational and development psychology at the Universidad de León. The team is currently studying the effects of various cognitive and self-regulatory interventions on the writing self-efficacy of students with learning disabilities. The interventions are based on a Self-regulated Strategy Development Model (SRSD) or on a Social Cognitive Model of Sequential Skill acquisition. They are looking issues such as increases in perceptions of self-efficacy to write effectively, improvement of calibration accuracy, and differential effects by group membership such as gender.

Samuel Rueda Méndez,How would you like to live in one of the most beautiful cities in the world? doctoral student at the Universidad de Sevilla, and Profesor José María León Rubio, Department of Social Psychology, are researching the influence of self-efficacy on health promotion and prevention. Their investigations include the relationship between self-efficacy beliefs and drug addiction. Samuel's English is spectacularly good, and he welcomes inquiries from researchers with similar interests.

Gabriel Cimaomo, doctoral student at the Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, is contemplating an investigation of the relationship between creativity and motivation variables such as self-concept and self-efficacy in academic domains. These are lightly charted waters and he welcomes contacts from students or researchers sharing similar interests.

Seal of the Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, ArgentinaProfessor Edgardo Perez, El Profesor Perezof the Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Argentina, is conducting research on the relationship between self-efficacy beliefs and multiple intelligences. He has developed an instrument to assess students' confidence that they possess the characteristics that represent the eight intelligences identified by Howard Gardner (download in .doc format for MS Word). He writes excellent English. Also see his new article:
      Con María Florencia Delgado, Prof. Perez nos ofrece un estudio relacionado con la construccion de una nueva escala de autoeficacia para el estudio
      El profesor también ha traducido el documento, Los Elementos de una Propuesta de Investigación
      Y aqui los resultados de una investigación en que dos escalas de autoeficacia fueron adaptadas a su población estudiantil: la Escala de Autoeficacia para Lengua y la Escala de Autoeficacia para la Escritura

El JorgeMarcosProfesor Perez tambien nos envia los nombres de tres estudiantes en su universidad que estan trabajando en relacion a la autoeficacia y la teoria social cognitiva.
      Marcos Cupani. Su tesis doctoral consiste en verificar un modelo social-cognitivo del rendimiento en matemática de estudiantes secundarios, incluyendo medidas de autoeficacia para rendimiento en matemática, metas y expectativas de resultados.
      Leonardo Medrano. Trabaja junto con Fabian Olaz en la validacion de su escala de autoeficacia social.
      Jorge Mattus. Está desarrollando una escala de autoeficacia para comprension lectora (reading self-efficacy) en adolescentes.

Fabián Olaz Fabi(aka Fabi de la Renta ) has completed a thesis on career self-efficacy. Prof. Perez and Fabián presented findings on self-efficacy and MI at the 2001 AERA Conference in Seattle. Fabian completed his thesis and is now a licenced psychologist. A hearty congratulations!! His thesis can be viewed/downloaded below. He is currently working on creating a self-efficacy scale for social skills, and he has recently coauthored a book chapter with Professor Pajares.

       La Teoría Social Cognitiva de la Autoeficacia: Contribuciones a la Explicación del Comportamiento Vocacional
       Also see his new article, Modelo Social Cognitivo del Desarrollo de Carrera, in the journal Evaluar

Guillermo Torres is a psychology student working with Fabián on the topic of statistics self-efficacy and academic persistence of university students.

EduardoProfessor Eduardo Mejía Carbonel, Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas, conducts research on the relationship between academic self-efficacy and the socioeconomic status of students and teachers in Lima. Professor Mejía has translated into Spanish the section entitled "Relation of Self-efficacy to Motivation Constructs and Academic Performances" from the book chapter Current Directions in Self-Efficacy Research. Contact him for a copy. He has created two excellent Powerpoint Presentations.

       Implicancias de las Investigaciones Sobre Autoeficacia en la Escuela

     and an excellent Conference paper recently presented

        Importancia de la Evaluación en la Motivación para el Aprendizaje, Conferencia presentada en el X Congreso Nacional de Educadores los días 1,2 y 3 de agosto, en la Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas, Lima, Perú

Numa Millan, psychologist at the Universidad Pedagógica Experimental Libertador-Maracay, Aragua, Venezuela is researching the connection between self-efficacy beliefs and the "All-But-Dissertation" (ABD) phenomenon. She welcomes inquiries, suggestions, and recommendations from students and researchers interested in this issue. Her English is excellent.

Laura Oros, Universidad Adventista del Plata, Argentina, is completing her doctoral thesis—"La Influencia del Estilo Parental sobre los Pensamientos Perfeccionistas, la Autoeficacia, y los Estilos de Coping en Niños." Laura ha diseñando una escala para medir la autoeficacia. La escala incluye tres dimensiones: Académica, Social, y Deportiva. Entren en contacto con ella si están interesados en escalas de autoeficacia en español.

Javier Bassi recently completed his thesis on mathematics self-efficacy, test anxiety, and response patterns at the Universidad Nacional de San Luis, Argentina. See the thesis [in Spanish], Factores Asociados al Desempeño en Exámenes Escritos. Javier is currently working and studying in Barcelona, Spain.

Nota: La Guía Para La Construccion De Escalas De Autoeficacia del Profesor Bandura está disponible ahora en español gracias a Fabián y el Profesor Perez. Además, la guía se ha publicado en la publicación Evaluar. Email Prof. Edgargo Perez (edrape@onenet.com.ar) para información. Aquí se puede obtener una biografía abreviada de profesor Bandura en español.

Miedo a las matemáticas, from univision.com

Confidence is that feeling by which the mind embarks in great and honorable courses with a sure hope and trust in itself.
"La confianza es esa sensación por la cual la mente se embarca en cursos grandes y honorables con una esperanza segura y confianza en sí misma."

~ Cicero ~

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Teoria Social CognitivaVisit Teoria Social Cognitiva, iniciativa vinculada às ações do Grupo de Pesquisa Psicologia e Educação Superior da Faculdade de Educação da Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Brazil. A idéia da página foi concebida com o objetivo de sistematizar as informações sobre os estudos brasileiros realizados sob o referencial da Teoria Social Cognitiva ou que investigam conceitos relacionados. Seu desenvolvimento conta com a participação de pesquisadores que encaminham dados sobre suas investigações. Além disso, pretende-se, também, facilitar o acesso a publicações internacionais na área. Email Roberta Azzi for more information, and see her web site.

       And be sure to check out the new 2008 book Teoria Social Cognitiva: Conceitos Basicos, edited by Prof. Bandura, Roberta, and Soely Polydoro and published by Artmed Editora

Prof. José Alyseo Bzuneck—Doutor em Psicologia do Escolar, Seal of the Universidade Estadual de LondrinaProfessor e Coordenador do Mestrado em Educação da Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Brazil—is making available to us four excellent articles/chapters. The first is an article published in 2003 in Revista Psico-USF. The second is an article published in 1996 in Arquivos Brasileiros de Psicologia. The third is a book chapter on teacher self-efficacy. The fourth is on the influence of self-efficacy beliefs on student motivation. All are must-reading.

       Crenças de eficácia de Professores: Validação da escala de Woolfolk e Hoy [Teacher Self-Efficacy: Validation of Woolfolk and Hoy Scale]. Includes an appendix with the scale.
       Crenças de Auto-eficácia de Professoras do 1º. Grau e sua Relação com Outras Variáveis de Predição e de Contexto (Elementary School Teachers' Efficacy Beliefs Related to Other Predictive and Context Variables).
       As Crenças De Auto-eficácia Dos Professores (Self-Efficacy Beliefs of Teachers).
       As Crenças de Auto-Eficácia e o seu Papel na Motivação do Aluno (Role of Self-Efficacy Beliefs in Student Motivation).

Seal of the Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, PortugalProfesor Marcos Onofre, Unidade de Ciências da Educação, Faculdade de Motricidade Humana, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Portugal, specializes in teacher self-efficacy. He is currently researching teacher self-efficacy, particularly in the context of physical education teachers. His English is excellent. He has made two of his articles available to us in English.

Seal of the Universidade Estadual de CampinasProf. Márcia Regina F. de Brito, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Brazil, is conducting research on mathematics self-efficacy. She encourages contacts from Portuguese speaking students investigating academic self-efficacy or other motivation constructs.

      A student of Prof. de Britos's, Liliane Ferreira das Neves, has completed a dissertation entitled Um estudo sobre as relações entre a percepção e as expectativas dos professores e dos alunos e o desempenho em matematica .
      And now, thanks to the great work of Rafael de Brito Dias, "Elements of a Proposal" (Os Elementos de uma Proposta) is available in Portuguese. Here in Word format.

Seal of the Universidad Federal do Rio de JaneiroProf. Fabio Iglesias, Mestre em Psicologia pela Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro e professor da Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro realizou pesquisa sobre desengajamento moral no cometimento de infrações de trânsito sob orientação da Prof. Cynthia Clark e gostaria de compartilhar informações com aqueles que têm pesquisado na área.

Diana catches a light moment with Professor Bandura during his visit to France in Spring of 2006       Escala de mecanismos de desengajamento moral no trânsito

Diana Vieira, doctoral student at Universidade do Porto, Portugal, is researching transition to work of college students. She has developed an excellent Transition-to-Work Self-Efficacy (TWSE) scale. 

Professor João Nogueira, Seal of the Universidade Nacional de Lisboa, Portugalteaches educational psychology in the Departamento de Ciências da Educação of the Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Portugal. He researches teacher self-efficacy and burnout in student teachers during their first year of practice. If you would like a copy of his thesis (FORMAR PROFESSORES COMPETENTES E CONFIANTES), please send him a quick email. More important, he is a music entusiast and plays doble bass!! Loves Brazilian music (Chico Buarque, Caetano Veloso, Noel Rosa). He knows, of course, that I am mad about Jobim. Helena Neves is one of Prof. Nogueira's students. She is completing her DMA dissertation on self efficacy and professional teatching of music education.

"Life is not easy for any of us. But what of that?
We must have perseverance and above all confidence in ourselves.
We must believe that we are gifted for something and that this thing must be attained."

~ Marie Curie ~

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  Trying to find the latest work on self-efficacy?

Visit the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI), click on the Social Science Citation Index, and do a general search. Use the term "self-efficacy" under TOPIC and receive the most up-to-date articles on self-efficacy. ISI provides abstract and references from each article, as well as subsequent articles that have cited that article. Many of the cited references and times cited entries are "clickable," so you can go to them. You will never use ERIC again. You must be using a server from an affiliated educational institution. You can use Google to Search This Site. This search will also return the text of PDF documents and of PowerPoint presentations, hence it will return specific articles and presentations that include your terms. With pdf files, you can then use the find feature of Acrobat Reader to find your terms within the article. Moreover, with Google you may view pdf files and PowerPoint presentations in html. Take careful note that the search will include the full emory.edu domain, so be as specific with your search terms as possible.

Search WWW Search this site

Search hints: Use key words and place quotation marks around terms you do not want separated: "task goals" avoids returns for "task" and for "goals." Do not type "and" or prepositions. Simply specify key terms: difference self-efficacy self-concept or, if you want to know when Albert Bandura was born, bandura born. Google usually places the most relevant pages up front. Questions work only because key words are read by the search engine. Better just to use key terms. If you're looking for passages, enter, within quotation marks, the piece of the passage you think you know. For example, what was it Bandura said about being "realistic about the odds"?

"Life is arduous, difficult, a perpetual struggle.
It calls for gigantic courage and strength. More than anything, perhaps,
creatures of illusion as we are, it calls for confidence in oneself.
Without self-confidence we are babes in the cradle."

~ Virginia Woolf ~
A Room of One's Own

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Professor Barry Zimmerman, Distinguished Professor of Educational Psychology, Graduate School and University Center, City University of New York, is the preeminent and authoritative voice on self-regulation and self-efficacy in education. In 1999, the Professor received the prestigious Sylvia Scribner Award.Professor Gian Vittorio Caprara, University of Roma La Sapienza, is an international authority on social cognitive theory and self-efficacy. Much of his work focuses on self-efficacy in familial and academic settings, and he and his research team often collaborate with Professor Bandura on important studies.Professor Deborah Feltz is Professor of Kinesiology and Chairperson of Sport Psychology at Michigan State University. She is an international authority on the role of self-efficacy in sports.Professor Gio Valiante, Rollins College, has brought self-efficacy theory, research, and practice to professional sports, most notably the PGA Tour. In addition, he has written extensively on writing self-efficacy beliefs. His book, Fearless Golf, has been on amazon's bestselling books since its publication in 2005.Robert Lent is Professor and Co-Director of the Counseling Psychology Program in the Department of Counseling and Personnel Services at the University of Maryland. A prominent voice in the area of career self-efficacy.Anita Woolfolk, Professor of Psychological Studies in Education at The Ohio State University, is the authoritative voice in the area of teacher self-efficacy. She is also author of the finest educational psychology textbook.Professor Tim Cleary is professor at the University of Wisconsin, Milwakee. His research interests include developing self-regulation and motivation intervention programs for at-risk adolescents and alternative assessment methods targeting study and learning strategies.Professor Dale Schunk, Dean of the College of Education at the University of North Carolina-Greensboro. An authoritative voice on social cognitive theory and on self-efficacy in education. His work is must-reading for students of self-efficacy.
Professor Alexander Stajkovik is assistant professor of Organizational Behavior in the Department of Management and Human Resources. His research has focused on self-efficacy beliefs in organizational settings. His article, Self-efficacy and work-related performance: A meta-analysis, published in the journal.Psychological Bulletin, is must reading for self-efficacy researchers.Nancy Betz is Professor of Psychology at The Ohio State University and Joan Huber Research Fellow of the OSU College of Social and Behavioral Science. Hers is a prominent voice in the area of career self-efficacy.Professor Rob Klassen, Department of Educational Psychology, University of Alberta, is a prominent researcher in the area of collective efficacy, self-efficacy of special education students, and self-efficacy in cultural contexts.Professor Shari Britner is Professor of Science Education at Bradley University. She is an authority in the area of science self-efficacy.Kate Lorig, Professor of the Department of Medicine, Stanford University, and Director of the Patient Education Research Center.Ralf Schwarzer, Professor of Psychology at the Freie Universität Berlin, Germany, and Adjunct Professor at York University, Toronto, Canada, is a preeminent voice in the area of self-efficacy and health promotion.Mimi Bong is Professor of Educational Psychology at Korea University, and hers is one of the prominent voices in self-efficacy and self-concept research and theory. She is the 2006 recipient of the Richard E. Snow Award for Distinguished Early Career Contributions to Educational Psychology.Megan Tschannen-Moran is an Assistant Professor at William & Mary in Educational Policy, Planning and Leadership in the School of Education. Her research interests focus on the social psychology of schools, including self-efficacy beliefs, trust and school climate.
Professor Ellen Usher, University of Kentucky, specializes in the sources of academic self-efficacy, particularly of middle school students.Professora Eugenia Scabini is currently Dean of the Department of Psychology at Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore. She is a frequent collaborator with Professors Caprara and Bandura, specializing in self-efficacy in familial settings.Professor Camillo Regalia is Professore straordinario di Psicologia Sociale presso la Facoltà di Scienze della Formazione at Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore. Specializing in self-efficacy and familial contexts, he is a frequent colloborator with Professors Caprara, Bandura, and Scabini.Professor Gabrielle Oettingen, University of Hamburg and NYU, investigates self-regulatory strategies and binding goals. Her research on how cultural and political system factors shape the development of efficacy beliefs is seminal.Professor Steven Brown, Loyola University of Chicago, explores how self-efficacy beliefs influence individuals' occupational choices and performance attainments, how best to assess congruence between interests and choices, and how various dimensions of normal personality influence persons' interests, choices, successes, and satisfactions. he is a frequent collaborator with Prof. Bob Lent.Professor Gail Hackett is currently Provost and Vice Chancellor for Academic Affairs 
at University of Missouri-Kansas City. Hers is one of the prominent voices in self-efficacy and career education and development.Professor Robert Wood is Director of the Accelerated Learning Laboratory at the prestigious Australian Graduate School of Management. He is a prominent voice in the area of social cognitive theory of organizational management, but has written extensively about self-efficacy and cognitive theory in various contexts.Professor James Maddux is an international authority on social cognitive theory and self-efficacy. Currently, he is Director of the Clinical doctoral program at George Mason University. His research focuses on understanding the influence of beliefs about personal effectiveness and control on psychological adjustment and health-related behavior. He is Editor of the Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology and author of Self-efficacy, Adaptation, and Adjustment: Theory, Research, and Application.
Jason Chen is a doctoral student in the Division of Educational Studies at Emory University. He specializes in self-efficacy and academic motivation in science, implicit theories, and epistemological beliefs.David Morris is a doctoral student in the Division of Educational Studies at Emory University. He specializes in self-efficacy beliefs of college professors at research universities. .Professor Roberta Azzi is a leading self-efficacy researcher in Brazil. She leads the Grupo de Pesquisa Psicologia e Educação Superior da Faculdade de Educação da Universidade Estadual de Campinas.Uichol Kim is a Distinguished Professor at the College of Business Administration, Inha University, Korea. He has published 15 books and over 150 articles and specializes on the role of self-efficacy beliefs in collectivistic societies.Professor Robin Henson teaches at North Texas State University and specializes in self-efficacy and motivational theory, applied general linear model analyses, measurement and assessment, and reliability generalization.Professor Marisa Salanova is Catedrática of Social Psychology at Jaume I University in Spain. She also directs the Work & Organization Network.Professor Leonor Prieto Navarro work at the Universidad Autónoma of Madrid. Her special interest is teacher/professor self-efficacy (autoeficacia docente).Professor Eugenio Garrido Martin, University of Salamanca, Spain, is one of the leading voices in self-efficacy and social cognitive theory in Europe.

This page was updated by Frank Pajares on Thursday, August 21, 200.

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"On ne voit bien qu'avec le cœur. L'essentiel est invisible pour les yeux."

"To succeed, one cannot afford to be a realist."

~ Albert Bandura ~
Address before the American Psychological Association, 1998

The Professor at Stanford University
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