Bibliography for Selected Figures

Clutter, J.L., J.C. Fortson, L.V. Pienaar, G.H. Brister, and R.L. Bailey. 1983. Timber management: A quantitative approach. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 333 p.  -  Back to Top


Figure 3.1 An illustration of the development of average stand dbh in plantations established at different spacings.


Figure 3.2 General relationship between net volume growth rate and amount of growing stock in all-aged stands.


Figure 3.3 An illustration of stand density effects on net growth rate as observed in spacing experiments in even-aged stands.


Figure 3.4 An illustration of stand density effects on net yield as observed in spacing experiments in even-aged stands.


Figure 3.5 An illustration of a gross yield curve in an unthinned even-aged stand and in a thinned counterpart.


Figure 3.9 An illustration of the competition zone overlap used in the definition of point density measures.


Figure 4.1 Total yield per acre of entire stem (outside bark) of all trees for shortleaf pine planted at 6-by-6 foot spacing. (After Smalley and Bailey, 1974.)


Figure 4.2 Quadratic mean diameter over age for 6 stems-per-acre planting densities (s.p.a.) of slash pine in Transvaal, South Africa. (After Pienaar, 1965.)


Figure 4.3 Average quadratic mean diameter over number of trees per acre for four levels of basal area per acre.


Figure 4.4 Average stand diameter distribution for all-aged, upland stands of oak. (After Schnur, 1937.)


Figure 4.5 Typical diameter distribution for an even-aged stand of upland hardwoods. (After Gingrich, 1978.)


Figure 8.2 Some aspects of growth in a typical even-aged stand.


Davis, L.S., K.N. Johnson, P. Bettinger, and T.E. Howard. 2001. Forest Management. Waveland Press, Long Grove, IL. 804 p. - Back to Top


Figure 4.11 Site index curves for four important timber species.


Figure 4.13 Merchantable volume yield as related to site index for four important timber species: Douglas-fir, ponderosa pine, upland oak, and loblolly pine.


Hicks, R.R., Jr. 1998. Ecology and management of Central Hardwood forests. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, NY. 412 p. - Back to Top


Figure 4 Map showing physiographic provinces and sections of the eastern United States (from Fenneman 1938).


Figure 45 Ecoregions of the United States – Provinces (from Bailey 1994).


Figure 94 Graph of gross production of wood over time for thinned and unthinned stands.


Figure 109 Example of a decision diagram for a mature stand to be regenerated in an area with high deer density (from Marquis and Twery 1992).


Figure 119 Diagrammatic representation of the factors governing success of failure of silvicultural operations, especially with regard to regeneration.


Figure 122 Graph showing the relationship between mean annual growth and oak site index (from Schnur 1937).


Table 10 Summary of some silvical characteristics of important species in the central hardwood region.


Johnson, P.S., S.R. Shifley, and R. Rogers. 2002. The Ecology and Silviculture of Oaks. - Back to Top


Figure 5.2 Stages of stand development that occur after a major disturbance that destroys all or most of the parent stand (Adapted from Oliver and Larson 1996; Oliver, 1997).


Figure 5.4 Diameter distributions of trees for a time-series of even-aged upland oak stands on average sites in the eastern United States (Adapted from Schnur, 1937).


Figure 10.2 Ten-year average dbh growth by crown classes of some common oaks. Red oaks are from Indiana, black and white oaks from Missouri and chestnut oaks from West Virginia. (From Trimble, 1969; Shifley and Smith, 1982; Smith and Shifley, 1984.)


Figure 10.4 Ten-year dbh growth of the 40 largest oaks per acre in relation to stand density (expressed as stocking percentage based on Gingrich’s (1967) stocking equation). (Adapted from Hilt, 1979.)


Figure 10.13 Basal area and volume yields of normal (100% stocked) upland oak stands in the eastern United States. (From Schnur, 1937).


Figure 10.15 Trees per acre by stand age and oak site index in normally stocked even-aged upland oak stands in the eastern United States. Includes all trees 0.6 dbh and larger. (From Schnur, 1937.)


Figure 10.16 Annual survival rates of trees by stand age classes for normally stocked even-aged upland oak stands in eastern United States. (Adapted from Schnur, 1937, and Gingrich, 1971a.)


Figure 10.17 Board-foot yields of thinned and unthinned upland oak stands in the Central Hardwood Region, oak site index 65. Total yield for the unthinned stand is shown by the line labeled ‘Unthinned’. (From Gingrich, 1971a).


Figure 10.18 Effects of site quality and age at first thinning on cumulative board foot yields (cut volume plus residual stand volume) of Central Hardwood oak stands (Gingrich, 1971a).


McShea, W.J., and W.M. Healy (eds.). 2003. Oak Forest Ecosystems: Ecology and Management for Wildlife. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland. 456 p. - Back to Top


Figure 4.1 Domestic production of forest products from 1800 to 1985 in the United States. (Adapted from Powell et al. 1993.)


Figure 5.1 Relationship between rate of net photosynthesis and light intensity.


Figure 5.2 The effect of residual overstory stocking on light intensity 8 inches above the ground in the central hardwood forests. The absolute values may change for forests at different latitudes, but the general relationships remain the same. (Adapted from Sander 1979.)


Figure 5.3 (A) Estimated probabilities that a tree of a given basal diameter will produce a sprout that survives to age 5 after clearcutting. (B) Estimated 5th-year heights of oak stump sprouts growing in clearcut openings in relation to basal diameter of the parent stem (Both adapted from Dey et al. 1996.)


Figure 12.1 Estimated seed shadows for two white oak and two red oak species. (From Smallwood et al. 1998.) As predicted, the two white oak species (chestnut oak [CO], Q. prinus, and white oak [WO], Q. alba) show much shorter dispersal distances than the two red oak species (red oak [RO], Q. rubra, and black oak [BO], Q. velutina).


Table 5.1 Shade tolerance in oak species and common competitors.


Table 10.1 Average acorn production, green weight and dry biomass conversion factors for five species of southern Appalachian oaks, 1993-1997.


Table 11.2 Nutrient composition of acorns of 11 oak species.


Nyland, R.D. 2002. Silviculture: Concepts and applications. McGraw Hill, Boston, MA. 682 p. - Back to Top


Figure 1.1 Practical silviculture rests on a foundation of basic science and plays a key role in sustaining a broad range of forest resources.


Figure 2.1 Components and character of silvicultural systems (after Nyland et al. 1983).


Figure 2.2 Alternate views of the silvicultural system, emphasizing its continuous nature and the interdependence of its component treatments.


Figure 4.1 Biophysical factors that influence regeneration success (from Rose et al. 1970).


Figure 4.3 The character and dynamics of seed banks in the forest floor (from Harper 1977).


Figure 4.4 A pattern of seed dispersal and seedling establishment for lodgepole pine, depicting three waves of regeneration around an individual parent tree (from Nyland 1998).


Figure 5.2 The timing and juxtaposition of site preparation and of the silvicultural practices in the rotation of even-aged forest community (after Tappeiner and Wagner 1987; Walstad and Selder 1990).


Figure 6.1 Some important steps in a artificial regeneration program (after Clearly and Greaves 1976).


Figure 6.6 Intertree spacing will influence several individual tree attributes, such as these for loblolly and slash pine (from Smith and Strub 1991), ponderosa pine (from Oliver 1979), and Douglas-fir (from Reukema 1979).


Figure 9.4 The classic function used in portraying expectations from increasing inputs to various levels in a productions system (from Barlowe 1958).


Figure 9.5 Application of the production function to depict even-aged stand development, using stand age as a measure of inputs and volume as the units of output over time.


Figure 9.6 Even-aged stands develop through four stages in which the number of trees reaches a peak during the reorganization phase and declines thereafter, and the biomass builds continually until the time of physiological maturity (from Bormann and Likens 1979).


Figure 9.8 Patterns of development among unmanaged natural hardwood stands over long periods from stand initiation through steady state (after Kimmins 1987).


Figure 9.10 Composite production function for selection system stands, representing the aggregate change in volume among multiple age classes as a result of the recurring regeneration and tending treatments at regular intervals.


Figure 10.6 Recommended residual diameter distributions for uneven-aged northern hardwoods (after Arbogast 1957), ponderosa pine (after Lexen, 1939, reported in Alexander and Edminster 1977a), and Norway spruce (after Osmaston 1968), based on empirical studies of managed stands.


Figure 11.2 Single-tree selection system creates and maintains a fairly uniform interspersion of age and size classes by removing individual trees to open space for a new age class and to reduce crowding among the immature ones. It creates few openings larger than the diameter of a mature tree crown.


Figure 11.6  Group selection method removes clusters of adjacent mature trees from a predetermined proportion of the stand area, leaving fairly large openings, and setting the state for a new age class to form in groups rather than dispersed uniformly across the stand.


Figure 11.7  Patch-selection system combines single-tree selection method with cutting of fixed area patches. This sets the stage for a new age class to regenerate both as groups within the patch openings and more uniformly dispersed across the rest of a stand.


Figure 13.1 Clearcutting removes the entire overstory (the mature trees) in one operation to establish a new cohort of desirable species across the site.


Figure 14.7 Reserve shelterwood method creates a two-aged arrangement, leaving carefully selected individuals of the mature age class to grow over the new cohort. The wide spacing ensures adequate sunlight and other site resources to sustain a rapid development of the younger cohort.


Figure 14.8 Group-shelterwood method uses small patch openings to establish or release clusters of advance regeneration and to stimulate seedling establishment inside adjacent edges of the uncut areas of the stand.


Figure 17.1 Unequal rates of height growth within and between species result in a differentiation of trees by height as the crown canopy forms, as shown by this series of stand development from seedling through early sawtimber stages.


Figure 17.5 Tree crown classes reflect their relative position in an even-aged stand crown canopy.


Figure 17.8 Production functions for a thinned even-aged stand, showing effects on the levels of stocking and patterns of regrowth throughout a sawtimber rotation.


Figure 17.10 The change of standing volume and cumulative gross production in managed and unmanaged even-aged stands over long periods of time (from Hall 1955).


Figure 17.12 Gross growth remains fairly constant with the relative density above 60 percent (after Mar:Moller 1954), but neg growth drops substantially above 80 percent relative density. As a rationale for thinning, foresters would reduce stocking to 60 percent, and let it regrow to 80 percent before thinning again.


Figure 18.1 Low thinning removes trees of subordinate crown positions to favor those of upper crown classes, with little effect on the main crown canopy for intensities of less than C-grade thinning from below.


Figure 18.3 Crown thinning favors the best trees of upper-crown positions, removing competitors from the main crown canopy.


Figure 18.6 Selection thinning removes the largest trees in upper crown positions, uncovering smaller ones for future growth and development.


Figure 18.12 Free thinning releases selected crop trees of ideal characteristics without necessarily improving the growing conditions for others of lesser quality and condition.


Figure 19.2 A. Long-term development of cubic-foot volume in upland oak stands (Site Index 65) for a thinning involving a ten-year thinning interval and a relative density control, beginning (A) at age 40 with a precommercial thinning and (B) plotted on the oak stocking guide (after Gingrich 1971).


Figure 19.3 Effect of thinning on the diameter of the tree of mean basal area (QSD) for thinning regimes commencing at ages 20 and 50 in Site Index 65 upland oak stands (after Gingrich 1971).


Figure 19.4 Thinning recovers the yield in potential mortality trees and excess growing stock, increasing the total realized over an even-aged rotation for large-diameter sawlogs.


Figure 19.5 Sources of added volume realized by thinning Douglas-fir stands in western North America (from Reukema and Bruce 1977).


Notation 1.1 A planning process for making silvicultural choices.


Notation 2.3 Factors that affect the economic prospects from stand management.


Notation 4.2 Common kinds of seed and methods of their dissemination for trees of North America (after Baker 1950).


Notation 4.3 General characteristics of seed production in sexually mature trees and stands (after Baker 1950; Barnes et al. 1998).


Notation 8.3 Factors that reduce the abundance and germination of directly sown seed or cause early mortality of seedlings (after Schubert et al. 1970; Brown 1974; Jones 1974; Barnett and Baker 1991).


Notation 9.3 General features of even-aged stand development as depicted by the production function in figure 9-5.


Notation 14.3 Criteria for selecting residual trees with reserve shelterwood and reserve seed-tree methods (after Smith 1995).


Notation 14.4 Common prerequisite conditions for overstory removal in conifer forest community types of North America.


Notation 14.5 Common measures for reducing seedling loss and damage during removal cutting (after Seidel 1979a; Boyer and White 1990; Tesch and Mann 1991).


Notation 16.1 Common objectives for release treatments (after Kostler 1956).


Notation 17.1 Commonly used crown classes and the characteristics of trees in those classes (after Kraft 1884; Hawley 1921; Baker 1950; Kostler 1956; Assmann 1970; Ford-Robertson 1971; Daniel et al. 1979; Hocker 1979; Spurr and Barnes 1980; Smith 1986; Oliver and Larson 1990; Smith et al. 1997; Helms 1998).


Notation 17.2 Characteristic patterns of even-aged stand development (after Baker 1950; Osmaston 1968; Assmann 1970; Smith 1986; Davis and Johnson 1987; Oliver and Larson 1990).


Notation 17.3 Effects of thinning on tree and stand development (after Hawley 1921; Daniel et al. 1979; Smith 1986; Smith et al. 1997).


Notation 17.4 Common terms that describe conditions in even-aged stands.


Schnur, G.L. 1937. Yield, stand, and volume tables for even-aged upland oak forests. US Department of Agriculture, Technical Bulletin No. 560. 87 p. - Back to Top


Figure 2 Height curves used for site classification.


Figure 4 Number of trees per acre showing trends with age by site index.


Figure 5 Total basal area per acre for trees over 0.6 inch d.b.h. showing trend with age by site index.


Figure 6 Diameter of average tree at breast height showing trend with age by site index.


Figure 8 Yield per acre in cubic feet, excluding bark, showing trends with age by site index.


Figure 9 Yield per acre in cubic feet of merchantable stem, including bark (to a 4-inch top outside bark), showing trends with age by site index.


Figure 10 Yield per acre in board feet, International rule (1/8-inch kerf) (to a 5-inch top inside bark), showing trends with age by site index.


Figure 12  Mean annual growth per acre in cubic feet of entire stand excluding bark, showing trends with age by site index.


Figure 13  Mean annual growth per acre in cubic feet of merchantable stand including bark, to a 4-inch top outside bark, showing trends with age by site index.


Figure 14  Mean annual growth per acre in board feet, International rule, 1/8-inch kerf to a 5-inch top, inside bark, showing trends with age by site index.


Smith, D.M. 1986. The Practice of Silviculture. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, NY. 527 p. - Back to Top


Figure 1.3 Typical examples of four different kinds of stand structure, showing appearance of stands in vertical cross sections and corresponding graphs of diameter distributions in terms of numbers of trees per unit of area. The trees of the first three stands are all of the same species but the fourth consists of several species but all of the same age.


Figure 2.1 An estimate, adapted from Mar:Moller, Muller, and Nielson (1954), of the allocation of carbohydrates in an even-aged stand of European beech during the course of about one rotation.


Figure 2.2 An example of the forms and interrelationships of curves of periodic and mean annual increment in an even-aged stand showing how the two rates are equal when M.A.I. is at its peak.


Figure 12.1 A simplified representation of the effects of the initial cuttings of various methods of reproduction, when applied uniformly over an area in a humid, temperate climate, on several factors usually critical in the establishment of natural reproduction.


Figure 13.2 Clearcutting the whole stand, with reproductions secured by seed disseminated from trees located outside the cut stand. The density of the reproduction 5 years after the cutting is indicated by the dots.


Figure 13.3 The arrangement of the strips within a pine stand reproduced by clearcutting in alternate strips of 80 feet wide.


Figure 13.4 Clearcutting a single stand in progressive strips, using three cutting sections. The last strip (Number 3) in each section may be reproduced by a method other than clearcutting.


Figure 14.7 Arrangement of cuttings in a stand regenerated by the group-shelterwood method. Advance reproduction was present before cutting on areas marked 1.


Smith, D.M., B.C. Larson, M.J. Kelty, and M.S. Ashton. 1997. The Practice of Silviculture: Applied Forest Ecology. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, NY. 537 p. - Back to Top


Figure 2.2  Typical example of five different kinds of stand structure show the appearance of stands in vertical cross section and corresponding graphs of diameter distribution in terms of numbers of trees per unit of area.


Figure 4.5 Graphs depicting three hypotheses about the effect of changes in stand density, induced by thinning, on the production of merchantable stemwood in pure, even-aged stands, all of the same species, site quality, and age.


Figure 5.3 The upper sketch shows a coniferous stand immediately before a single crown thinning. The trees to be cute are denoted by horizontal lines on the lower boles and those with shaded crowns are crop trees. The lower sketch shows the same stand 20 years after the crown thinning and reclosed to the point where a low thinning would be desirable.


Figure 5.12 Diameter distributions for the same pure, even-aged stand showing, by cross-hatching, the parts that would be removed in four different methods of thinning.


Figure 10.5 Steps in the use of the bar-slit method of planting seedlings in sandy soil. (Sketch by U.S. Forest Service.)


Tappeiner, J.C., D.A. Maguire, and T.B. Harrington. 2007. Silviculture and Ecology of Western U.S. Forests. Oregon State University Press, Corvallis, OR. 440 p. - Back to Top


Figure 2.2 Examples of (A) even-aged, (B) two-aged, and (C and D) uneven-aged stands. The stand in (C) is being managed by the group selection method, that in (D) by the single tree selection method.


Figure 2.4 Theoretical structure and ranges of diameters (shown under the curves) through time of an (A) even-aged and (B) uneven-aged stand.


Figure 5.4 (A) Tree height and height to the base of the live crown, and (B) crown length of the 40 largest Douglas-fir trees per acre growing at three densities. Tree height was the same in the three densities. Adapted from Marshall and Curtis (2002).


Figure 5.5 Theoretical diagram of leaf area in stands of various ages and densities. Also see Long and Smith (1984).


Figure 5.6 Net primary production, total standing tree biomass, and total leaf biomass in Pinus sylvestris plantations (Ovington 1962).


Figure 7.1 Effects of different types of thinning on stand structure, d/D ratio (diameter of cut trees/diameter of the trees before thinning), and basal area. The data are from the 55 yr-old Douglas-fir stand described in Table 7.1. White bars show trees removed.


Figure 9.4 Relative heights that species in mixed-conifer and coastal Douglas-fir forests would reach in various size gaps in the canopy. Lines represent theoretical relative heights at which light compensation points are reached. From Messier et al. (1999).