CJT 780  Readings

APA Publications and Communication Board Working Group on Journal Article Reporting Standards. (2008). Reporting standards for research in psychology: Why do we need them? What might they be? American Psychology, 63(9), 839-851

January 24    

Introduction(s), Background, Overview, Assignments


Hosman, L. A. (2002). Language and persuasion. In J. P. Dillard & M. Pfau (Eds.), The persuasion handbook: Developments in theory and practice (pp. 371-390). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.


O’Keefe, D. J. (2003). Message properties, mediating states, and manipulation checks: Claims, evidence, and data analysis in experimental persuasive message effects research. Communication Theory, 13 (3), 251-274.


O’Keefe, D. J. (2004). Trends and prospects in persuasion theory and research. In J. S. Seiter & R. H. Gass (Eds.), Perspectives on persuasion, social influence, and compliance gaining (pp. 31-43). Boston, MA: Pearson/Allyn and Bacon.


January 31    

Arguments and Evidence


Areni, C. S. (2002). The proposition-probability model of argument structure and message acceptance. Journal of Consumer Research, 29 (2), 168-187.


Motes, W. H., Hilton, C. B., & Fielden, J. S. (1992). Language, sentence, and structural variations in print advertising. Journal of Advertising Research, 32 (5), 63-77.


Igou, E. R., & Bless, H. (2007). Conversational expectations as a basis for order effects in persuasion. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 26 (3), 260-273.


O’Keefe, D. J., & Jackson, S. (1995). Argument quality and persuasive effects: A review of current approaches. In S. Jackson (Ed.), Argumentation and values: Proceedings of the Ninth SCA/AFA conference on argumentation (pp. 88-92). Annandale, VA: SCA.


Reynolds, R. A., & Reynolds, J. L. (2002). Evidence. In J. P. Dillard & M. Pfau (Eds.), The persuasion handbook: Developments in theory and practice (pp. 427-444). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.


Hoeken, H. (2001). Anecdotal, statistical, and causal evidence: Their perceived and actual persuasiveness. Argumentation, 15, 425-437.

February 7    

Narrative and Statistical Forms of Evidence


Kreuter, M. W., Green, M. C., Capella, J. N., Slater, M. D., Wise, M. E., Storey, D., et al. (2007). Narrative communication in cancer prevention and control: A framework to guide research and application. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 33 (3), 221-235.


Greene, K., & Brinn, L. S. (2003). Messages influencing college women’s tanning bed use: Statistical versus narrative evidence format and a self-assessment to increase perceived susceptibility. Journal of Health Communication, 8, 443-461.


Kopfman, J. E., Smith, S. W., Ah Yun, J. K., & Hodges, A. (1998). Affective and cognitive reactions to narrative versus statistical evidence organ donation messages. Journal of Applied Communication Research, 26, 279-300.


Slater, M. D., & Rouner, D. (1996). Value-affirmative and value-protective processing of alcohol education messages that include statistical evidence or anecdotes. Communication Research, 23 (2), 210-235.


Allen, M., Bruflat, R., Fucilla, R., Kramer, M., McKellips, S., Ryan, D. J., & Spiegelhoff, M. (2000). Testing the persuasiveness of evidence: Combining narrative and statistical forms. Communication Research Reports, 17 (4), 331-336.

February 14    

Argument Structure


Lowrey, T. M. (1998). The effects of syntactic complexity on advertising persuasiveness. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 7 (2), 187-206.


O’Keefe, D. J. (1999). How to handle opposing arguments in persuasive messages: A meta-analytic review of the effects of one-sided and two-sided messages. Communication Yearbook, 22, pp. 209-249.


O’Keefe, D. J. (2002). The persuasive effects of variation in standpoint articulation. In F. H. van Eemeren (Ed.), Advances in pragma-dialectics (pp. 65-82). Amsterdam: Sic Sat.


Searleman, A., & Carter, H. (1988). The effectiveness of different types of pragmatic implications found in commercials to mislead subjects. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 2, 265-272.


Blankenship, K. L, & Craig, T. Y. (2006). Rhetorical question use and resistance to persuasion: An attitude strength analysis. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 25 (2), 111-128.


February 21    

Figurative Language


McGuire, W. J. (2000). Standing on the shoulders of ancients: Consumer research, persuasion, and figurative language. Journal of Consumer Research, 27 (1), 109-114.


McQuarrie, E. F., & Mick, D. G. (1996). Figures of rhetoric in advertising language. Journal of Consumer Research, 22 (4), 424-438.


McQuarrie, E. F., & Mick, D. G. (2003). Visual and verbal rhetorical figures under directed processing versus incidental exposure to advertising. Journal of Consumer Research, 29 (4), 579-587.


Sopory, P., & Dillard, J. P. (2002). Figurative language and persuasion. In J. P. Dillard & M. Pfau (Eds.), The persuasion handbook: Developments in theory and practice (pp. 407-426). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.


Davis, J. (2007). The effect of qualifying language on perceptions of drug appeal, drug experience, and estimates of side-effect incidence in DTC advertising. Journal of Health Communication, 12, 607-622.


Hafer, C. L., Reynolds, K. L., & Obertynski, M. A. (1996). Message comprehensibility and persuasion: Effects of complex language in counterattitudinal appeals to laypeople. Social Cognition, 14 (4), 317-337.                           

February 28  

Powerful/Powerless Language


Hosman, L. A. (1989). The evaluative consequences of hedges, hesitations, and intensifiers: Powerful and powerless speech styles. Human Communication Research, 15 (3), 383-406.


Hosman, L. A., Huebner, T. M., & Siltanen, S. A. (2002). The impact of power-of-speech style, argument strength, and need for cognition on impression formation, cognitive responses, and persuasion. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 21 (4), 361-379.


Blankenship, K. L., & Holtgraves, T. (2005). The role of different markers of linguistic powerlessness in persuasion. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 24 (1), 3-24.


Blankenship, K. L. & Craig, T. Y. (2007). Language and persuasion: Tag questions as powerless speech or as interpreted in context. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 43, 112-118.


Sparks, J. R., & Areni, C. S. (2008). Style versus substance: Multiple roles of language power in persuasion. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 38 (1), 37-60.


Durik, A. M., Britt, M. A., Reynolds, R., & Storey, J. (2008). The effects of hedges in persuasive arguments: A nuanced analysis of language. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 27 (3), 217-234.

March 7    

Language Intensity and Vividness


Bradac, J. J., Bowers, J. W., & Courtright, J. A. (1979). Three language variables in communication research: Intensity, immediacy, and diversity. Human Communication Research, 5 (3), 257-269.


Hamilton, M. A., Hunter, J. E., & Burgoon, M. (1990). An empirical test of an axiomatic model of the relationship between language intensity and persuasion. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 9 (4), 235-255.


Keller, P. A., & Block, L. G. (1997). Vividness effects: A resource-matching perspective. Journal of Consumer Research, 24, 295-304.


Block, L. G., & Keller, P. A. (1997). Effects of self-efficacy and vividness on the persuasiveness of health communications. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 6 (1), 31-54.


Frey, K. P., & Eagly, A. H. (1993). Vividness can undermine the persuasiveness of messages. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65 (1), 32-44.


Smith, S. M., & Shaffer, D. R. (2000). Vividness can undermine or enhance message processing: The moderating role of vividness congruency. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 26 (7), 769-779.


Collins, R. L., Taylor, S. E., Wood, J. V., & Thompson, S. C. (1988). The vividness effect: Elusive or illusory? Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 24, 1-18.                                      

March 21  

Catch Our Breath/Take Stock/Research Proposal Discussion Day

March 28    



Nabi, R. L. (2002). Discrete emotions and persuasion. In J. P. Dillard & M. Pfau (Eds.), The persuasion handbook: Developments in theory and practice (pp. 289-308). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.


Dillard, J. P., & Nabi, R. L. (2006). The persuasive influence of emotion in cancer prevention and detection messages. Journal of Communication, 56, S123-S139.


Witte, K. (1992). Putting the fear back into fear appeals: The Extended Parallel Process Model. Communication Monographs, 59, 329-349.


Dillard, J. P., Plotnick, C. A., Godbold, L. C., Freimuth, V. S., & Edgar, T. (1996). The multiple affective outcomes of AIDS PSAs: Fear appeals do more than scare people. Communication Research, 23 (1), 44-72.


Huhmann, B. A., & Brotherton, T. P. (1997). A content analysis of guilt appeals in popular magazine advertisements. Journal of Advertising, 26 (2), 35-45.


Weinberger, M. G., & Gulas, C. S. (1992). The impact of humor in advertising: A review. Journal of Advertising, 21 (4), 35-59.

April 4    

Message Sensation Value


Donohew, L., Lorch, E. P., & Palmgreen, P. (1998). Applications of a theoretic model of information exposure to health interventions. Human Communication Research, 24 (3), 454-468.

Langleben, D. D., Loughead, J. W., Ruparel, K., Hakun, J. G., Busch-Winokur, S., Holloway, M. B. ... Lerman, C. (2009). Reduced prefrontal and temporal processing and recall of high "sensation value" ads. NeuroImage, 46, 219-225.

Morgan, S. E., Palmgreen, P., Stephenson, M. T., Hoyle, R. H., & Lorch, E. P. (2003). Associations between message features and subjective evaluations of the sensation value of antidrug public service announcements. Journal of Communication, 53 (3), 512-526.

Niederdeppe, J. D. (2005). Syntactic indeterminacy, perceived message sensation value-enhancing features, and message processing in the context of anti-tobacco advertisements. Communication Monographs, 72 (3), 324-344.

Noar, S. M., Palmgreen, P., Zimmerman, R. S., Lustria, M. L. A., & Lu, H. (2010). Assessing the relationship between perceived messge sensation value and percieved message effectiveness: Analysis of PSAs from an effective campaign. Communication Studies, 61(1), 21-45.

Kang, Y., Cappella, J., & Fishbein, M. (2006). The attentional mechanism of message sensation value: Interaction between message sensation value and argument quality on message effectiveness. Communication Monographs, 73 (4), 351-378.

April 11    

Message Framing


Salovey, P., Schneider, T. R., & Apanovitch, A. M. (2002). Message framing in the prevention and early detection of illness. In J. P. Dillard & M. Pfau (Eds.), The persuasion handbook: Developments in theory and practice (pp. 391-406). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.


Detweiler, J. B., Bedell, B. T., Salovey, P., Pronin, E., & Rothman, A. J. (1999). Message framing and sunscreen use: Gain-framed messages motivate beach-goers. Health Psychology, 18 (2), 189-196.


Schneider, T. R., Salovey, P., Apanovitch, A. M., Pizarro, J., McCarthy, D., Zullo, J., & Rothman, A. J. (2001). The effects of message framing and ethnic targeting on mammography use among low-income women. Health Psychology, 20 (4), 256-266.

O’Keefe, D. J., & Jensen, J. D. (in press). The relative effectiveness of gain-framed and loss-framed persuasive appeals concerning obesity-related behaviors: Meta-analytic evidence and implications. In P. A. Keller, V. J. Strecher, & R. Batra (Eds.), Leveraging consumer psychology for effective health communications. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe.

O’Keefe, D. J., & Jensen, J. D. (2006). The advantages of compliance or the disadvantages of noncompliance? A meta-analytic review of the relative persuasive effectiveness of gain-framed and loss-framed messages. Communication Yearbook, 30, 1-43.


Latimer, A. E., Salovey, P., & Rothman, A. J. (2007). The effectiveness of gain-framed messages for encouraging disease prevention behavior: Is all hope lost? Journal of Health Communication, 12, 645-649.

April 18    

Tailored Messaging


Noar, S. M., Harrington, N. G., & Aldrich, R. S. (2009). The role of message tailoring in the development of persuasive health communication messages. Communication Yearbook, 33, 73-133.


Prochaska, J. O., Velicer, W. F., Fava, J. L., Ruggiero, L., Laforge, R. G., Rossi, J. S., et al. (2001). Counselor and stimulus control enhancements of a stage-matched expert system intervention for smokers in a managed care setting. Preventive Medicine, 32, 23-32.


Brug, J., Glanz, K., Van Assema, P., Kok, G., & van Breukelen, G. J. P. (1998). The impact of computer-tailored feedback and iterative feedback on fat, fruit, and vegetable intake. Health Education & Behavior, 25 (4), 517-531.


Williams-Piehota, P., Schneider, T. R., Pizarro, J., Mowad, L., & Salovey, P. (2003). Matching health messages to information-processing styles: Need for cognition and mammography utilization. Health Communication, 15 (4), 375-392.


Simon-Arndt, C. M., Hurtado, S. L., & Patriarca-Troyk, L. A. (2006). Acceptance of Web-based personalized feedback: User ratings of an alcohol misuse prevention program targeting U. S. marines. Health Communication, 20 (1), 13-22.


Evers, K. E., Prochaska, J. O., Van Marter, D. F., Johnson, J. L., & Prochaska, J. M. (2007). Transtheoretical-based bullying prevention effectiveness trials in middle schools and high schools. Education Research, 49 (4), 397-414.

April 25    

Macro-level and Comprehensive Design Considerations


Berry, T. R., Wharf-Higgins, J., & Naylor, P.J. (2007). SARS Wars: An examination of the quantity and construction of health information in the news media. Health Communication, 21 (1), 35-44.


DeSantis, A. D., & Morgan, S. E. (2003). Sometimes a cigar [magazine] is more than just a cigar [magazine]: Pro-smoking arguments in Cigar Aficionado, 1992-2000. Health Communication, 15 (4), 457-480.


Rimal, R. N., & Real, K. (2003). Understanding the influence of perceived norms on behaviors. Communication Theory, 13 (2), 184-203.


Cialdini, R. B. (2003). Crafting normative messages to protect the environment. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 12 (4), 105-109.


Buller, D. B., Borland, R., & Burgoon, M. (1998). Impact of behavioral intention on effectiveness of message features: Evidence from the Family Sun Safety project. Human Communication Research, 24 (3), 433-453.