DIP-700
DYNAMICS OF DIPLOMACY
Fall 1999

Professor John D. Stempel   Class Time: Wednesday 2:00-4:30. B&E Rm. 306
Office: Patterson Ofc. Twr, Rm. 455  Office Hours: Mon. 9-12, Tues 1-2
Telephone: 257-4666     others by appointment or
e-mail: stempel@pop.uky.edu     fortuitous walk-in

COURSE OVERVIEW -- Diplomacy, often called the second oldest profession, has been the principal form of interaction between sovereign entities since antiquity.  It gradually became the primary form of international discourse after the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648, and evolved in its classical European state-centric form well into the 20th century.  Post-World War II, Diplomacy took a somewhat different shape in the bipolar perspective of the Cold War.  Since 1989, however, Diplomacy has taken on new meanings and new forms which lead some to call it vital, while others consider it outmoded and archaic.  This course will discuss the dynamics of Diplomacy and assess its future.

 The course begins by exploring the historical evolution of diplomacy, reviewing its origins and then focusing on the post-World War II period as diplomatic practitioners adjusted to a new world--rapid communication, faster transportation, bipolar political alliances and growing transnational activity.  With the end of the Cold War, diplomatic activity surged--while countries were simultaneously cutting back their diplomatic establishments.  We then analyze the evolving functions and organization of diplomacy, zeroing in on what diplomats actually DO (with myriad practical skill-building exercises).

 From there, the course sketches the new functions and tasks undertaken by diplomats and others, and concludes with an assessment of Diplomacy and diplomatic skills and what they mean for the current international system. Students will be required to do independent probing on key analytical and policy questions, and will sharpen their oral and written skills, which are absolutely critical to diplomatic and other organizational careers anywhere.

ATTENDANCE -- This is a seminar-style course, and participation will be counted.  All credit-earning members of the class should be present for all sessions, and especially ones at which they are presenting material (see below).  Just as in business, government, or politics, occasionally a scheduled appointment must be missed.  In case of such emergency, a phone call, e-mail, message, note under the door, or some other communication should precede an absence. You are responsible for obtaining from a classmate notes and information on a session you miss.

EXAMINATIONS AND GRADING -- There will be no examinations as such in this course.  Graded activities will be performed regularly in class. The following activities will constitute the evaluation system:

    per cent of grade                     frequency

Seminar participation 10 per cent   every session
Demarche   15 per cent   once during semester
Memo of conversation 10 per cent   once during semester
Reporting telegram 15 per cent   once during semester
Analytical briefing  30 per cent   twice during semester (15% each)
Examination  20 per cent   Dec. 8 class

Letter grades will be given for all exercises; the instructor reserves the right to factor in improvement over time.  Late written work will be marked down half a grade a day. Work over four days late will not be accepted and an “F” grade assigned. Nonattendance at a scheduled presentation (without prior excuse) will be graded “F”

REPRESENTATION -- Much of diplomacy requires understanding the attitudes, culture, and politics of another society.  With this in mind, at the beginning of the course, each student will assume the role of a diplomat in a foreign embassy in Washington. The principal written assignments, memcons, demarches, etc. will be made from the perspective of the country chosen.  A list of countries having significant relations with the United States appears on the information handout each of you will receive.  Please list first, second, and third choices. No duplicate assignments will be made; a student can not choose his or her native country, otherwise, the choice is open.

DEMARCHE -- Beginning September 29 at the start of each class, one or more of you (as necessary to complete the cycle) will present to me, as U.S. Undersecretary of State for Political (or Economic) Affairs, an issue important to the country you represent. We will draw lots on Sept. 8 to determine the order of presentation, and an additional informational handout will be provided then.

MEMO OF CONVERSATION , REPORTING TELEGRAM --  Once during the semester, I or someone else, will make presentations for which you will take notes and prepare a short memorandum of conversation, or “memcon.” In addition, at an announced point, I (or someone) will give a short press conference, perhaps with handout, which you will then work into a reporting cable to your home foreign ministry.  More will be said later about this.

ANALYTICAL BRIEFING -- At least twice during the semester, you will be given a week’s notice and provided with designated material on which to develop a short 5-10 minute briefing which you will give to the class on a subject related to the rest of the material covered that day. The role play will be relaxed for this exercise, and you will simply be a briefing officer.

SUBJECTS OF STUDY -- A detailed topical syllabus follows. Students are expected to do the readings groups under each seminar period BEFORE the seminar discussion session. Readings not in the assigned texts but listed below can be found in the boxes marked with this course name in the Vandenbosch Lounge, Patterson Office Tower Rm.420.  In addition, material has been placed on reserve for this course at the new Young Library.  Additional materials will be handed out during the semester. You should also keep abreast of current diplomatic developments, especially in your country of representation and others significant to it.

SOURCE/TEXTBOOKS --available at book stores

Keith Hamilton and Richard Langhorne, The Practice of  Diplomacy, Routledge,
 1995 (referred to below as PRACTICE)

Paula Hoy, Players and Issues in International Aid, Kumarian, Press, 1998
(referred to below as PLAYERS)

Jovan Kurbalija (ed.), Modern Diplomacy, Univ. of Malta Press, 1998 (referred
 to below as MODIP)

Muldoon, et al., Multilateral Diplomacy and the United Nations Today, Westview
 Press, 1999 ( referred to below as MULTI)

David D. Newsom,  Diplomacy and the American Democracy, Indiana Univ. Press, 1988 (referred to below as NEWSOM)

Adam Watson, The Limits of Interdependence, Routledge, 1997 (referred to below as
 WATSON)
 

SEMINAR TOPICS AND READINGS
 

August 25  Up from Classical Diplomacy

 MODIP, pp. 11-36
 PRACTICE, intro, ch. 1
 MULTI, ch. 1
 WATSON, Ch. 1
 
Sept. 1  Functions of Diplomacy in the International System

 MODIP, pp. 39-48, 59-94, 147-164
 PRACTICE, ch. 6
 MULTI, ch. 3
 NEWSOM, chs 1 and 2
WATSON, Chs. 2 or 3, and 4
 
 

Sept.8 Organization of diplomacy

 MODIP, pp. 49-58, 117-126
 PRACTICE, ch. 3
 NEWSOM, chs 3 and 4
 U.S. Department of State, short history (handout)
WATSON, chs 5 and 6
 

Sept. 15 Diplomatic communication --Verbal and Symbolic

 MODIP, pp. 165-178
MULTI, ch. 4
 NEWSOM, ch. 5 and 14
 Jervis, Logic of  Images, chs 1 and 9 (box)

Sept. 22 Diplomacy and Power:  Strategic Action

 
 NEWSOM, chs 7 and 12
 Beer, Strategic Intelligence and Discursive Reality , pp.387-414 (box)
 WATSON, ch 7, 8
 

Sept. 29 Getting Information: Intelligence, Background, Press

 MULTI,
 NEWSOM, chs 6 and 11
 Michael Herman, Intelligence Power in War and Peace, ch.19 (box)
 Ada Bozeman, Strategic Intelligence and Statecraft, chs 5 and 7 (box)
 Stempel, Inside the Iranian Revolution, ch. 14 (box)
 

Oct. 6 Acquiring and Exercising Influence in a Foreign Society

 NEWSOM, ch. 16
 Stempel, Inside the Iranian Revolution, ch. 4 (box)
 MODIP, pp. 95-116
 

Oct. 13 Political and Economic Reporting Functions

 PLAYERS, intro, ch. 1
 NEWSOM, chs 8 and 9
 Business and the State, ch.5 (box)
 

Oct. 20 Consular and Administrative Functions

 NEWSOM, chs 10 and 15
 Inside a U.S. Embassy, pp. 21, 26-28
 Stearns, ch. 6  (box)
 

Oct. 27 Expansion of Diplomacy: Aid, Relief, Multilateral

 DIPLOMACY, ch. 7
 PLAYERS, chs 2-4
 

Nov.3  Dilution of Diplomacy: State, Local units, MNC’s, NGOs

 MULTI, ch. 5
MODIP, pp. 229-240
PLAYERS, chs 5 and 6
 International Dimensions of American Federalism, all (handout)
 

Nov. 10 Negotiation and Conflict resolution in Diplomacy

 MULTI, Ch. 2
Stempel, Contemporary. Diplomacy and Conflict Resolution:
            The Intertwining,  (handout)
 Sullivan, Embassies Under Siege,  ch. 9  (box)
 

Nov. 17 Crisis Management and the World Community

 MODIP, pp. 241-261
 Craig and George, Force and Statecraft, ch. 15  (box)
 Oakley and Hirsch, Somalia and Operation Restore Hope, fwd and ch. 8  (box)
 Sullivan, Embassies Under Siege, chs 1 and 4 (box)
 

Nov. 24 Alternative Views of  Diplomacy

 PRACTICE, ch.7
 PLAYERS, ch. 7
 MULTI, ch. 6

Dec. 1 Diplomacy and World Order Management

 MULTI,
 Newsom, Present Dangers (handout)
 

Dec. 8 Examination (ONE hour) and Final Review

 (no further assignments)