|The Patterson School
of Diplomacy and International Commerce
University of Kentucky
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John D. Stempel
Patterson School of Diplomacy
Rev. Nov. 1995
1 Harold Saunders, "An Historic Challenge to Rethink How Nations Relate," Ch. 1 in The Psychodynamics of International Relations, Vol I: Concepts and Theories, Vamik Volkan, et al eds. Lexington Books, 1990 and Walter Laqueur, "Save Public Diplomacy: Broadcasting America's Message Matters, Foreign Affairs, vol. 74, January/February 1995, pp. 19-24.
2 Henry Kissinger, "Reflections on Containment," Foreign Affairs, vol. 73, May/June 1994, p. 130.
3 See Godfry Hodgson, "American Ideals, Global Realities," World Policy Journal, vol. X, no. 4, winter 1993-94, pp. 1-6; and Walter Russell Mead, "Lucid Stars: The American Foreign Policy Tradition, World Policy Journal, vol. XI, no. 4, winter 1994-95, pp. 1-17.
4 Henry Kissinger's book Diplomacy, Simon and Schuster, 1994, is an example of the narrow focus of so-called "classical diplomacy." Examples of reaching beyond older forms are The Cold War and After: Prospects for Peace, ed. by Sean M. Lynn-Jones and Stephen E. Miller, MIT Press, 1993; the series in Foreign Affairs on the "Clash of Civilizations," responses and rejoinders in the Summer 1993, Fall 1993 and November/December 1993 issues; and James Der Derian's thorough and thought-provoking On Diplomacy, Blackwell, 1987.
5Leslie Gelb, "Quelling the Teacup Wars," Foreign Affairs, vol. 73, No. 6, pp. 2-6, quote from p. 6; Evans figures from Gareth Evans, Cooperative Security and Intrastate Conflict," Foreign Policy, no. 6, Fall 1994, pp. 3-20.
Indiana University Press, 1988.
7 John Lewis Gaddis, The United States and the End of the Cold War, Oxford University Press, 1993, especially chapter 3, which deals with changing moral positions. For an in-depth grappling with structural issues, see Jerel A. Rosati, Joe D. Hagan, and Martin Sampson III, Foreign Policy Restructuring, University of South Carolina Press, 1994
8 Roger Fisher, Getting to Yes, Negotiating Agreement without Giving In, Penguin Books, 1987; Raymond Cohen, Negotiating Across Cultures, United States Institute of Peace, 1991. Even one of the best and most popular self-improvement books, Stephen Covey's Seven Habits of Highly Effective People Simon and Schuster, 1989, offers the admonition "Think win-win" as its fourth basic principle/habit.
9 See Richard E. Rubenstein and Jarle Crocker, "Challenging Huntington," Foreign Policy, No. 46, Fall 1994, pp. 113-128, for the most powerful riposte to Huntington's argument. Lewis Thomas, in his book The Fragile Species (New York: Collier books, 1992) makes a powerful case for need-conscious politics and foreign policy in chapters 7 and 8.
10 Father Bede Griffith, A New Vision of Reality: Western Science, Eastern Mysticism and Christian Faith, Templegate Press, 1989; especially chapters 1 and 13. Full citations for Birch and Bohm: Charles Birch, On Purpose, New South Wales Press, 1990; David Bohm, Wholeness and the Implicate Order, Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1980.
11 Douglas Johnston and Cynthia Sampson, Religion: The Missing Dimension of Statecraft, Oxford University Press, 1994.
12 Daniel Yankelovich and I.M. Destler, eds., Beyond the Beltway, W.W. Norton and Company, 1994, especially chapters 2 and 3.
13 Karen Rasler and William R. Thompson, The Great Powers and Global Struggle 1490-1990, University Press of Kentucky, 1994, offers a superb summary of these arguments in their Ch. 10. Richard Haas, "Paradigm Lost," Foreign Affairs, vol. 74, January/February 1995, no. 1, pp. 43-58 summarizes much the same thing from the policy maker's view.
14 The most recent example of this took place at Gesthsemani Abbey in Kentucky when a combined group of religious scholars, ethics students, and social scientists gathered October 28-30 to begin to formulate such a doctrine.
15 George Shultz, Triumph and Turmoil, Charles Scribner's Sons, 1993, p. 345. For contemporary arguments on just war, see James Turner Johnson and George Weigel, Just War and the Gulf War, Ethics and Public Policy Center, 1991, and Johnson's earlier writings on the subject, especially Can Modern War Be Just?, Yale, 1984.
16 Newsom, Op cit., p. 14; Alexander L. George and Gordon A. Craig, two outstanding American scholars, admirably demonstrate the power of such an approach in Force and Statecraft: Diplomatic Problems of Our Time, Oxford University Press, 1983.
17 The quotation is taken from the title of best current effort to deal with this issue, Alexander George, Bridging the Gap: Theory and Practice in Foreign Affairs, U.S. Institute of Peace, 1993. Richard Shultz, Roy Godson, Ted Greenwood, eds., Security Studies for the 1990's, Brassey's, 1993, deal with some of these same issues in the area of national security and defense.
18 The best compilation of material on this subject, including material by academics, citizens and diplomatic practitioners, can be found in the two-volume work edited by Vamik Volkan, Joseph Montville, and Demetrios Julius, The Psychodynamics of International Relations, Vol I: Concepts and Theories; vol II: Unofficial Diplomacy at Work, Lexington Books, 1990 and 1991.
19 John Lewis Gaddis, "Theory and the End of the Cold War," pp 323-388 in Lynn-Jones and Miller, eds., Op Cit.
20 An excellent, if somber, description of this can be found in Robert Kaplan, "The Coming Anarchy," The Atlantic Monthly, Feb. 1994, pp 44-76.
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