PS 711/491-002
Middle Eastern Politics and Diplomacy
Fall 2000

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Professor John D. STEMPEL
Class time: Tuesday, 3:30-6 p.m.
Office: Patterson Off Twr, Room 455
Office Hrs: Any time, 9-5, or by appt.
Classroom: Classroom Bldg, Rm 209
Telephone: 257-4666

COURSE OVERVIEW: This course is a demanding, high reading load seminar, not a lecture course. It is for graduate students and upper division, willing-to-work high-achieving undergraduates only. As used here, the "Middle East" includes those countries from Morocco to Iran, including Turkey, Iran, and Israel. Instruction begins with an historical introduction to the region and discussion of concepts used to understand the interplay of Middle Eastern political and diplomatic life, including the idea of civil society and the security state. The social background of the area is covered, particularly during the middle segment when the nation-states which make up the area are analyzed in detail.

Next, the international relations of the region, including key outside powers, are reviewed, with emphasis on the period since 1973. Key issues and problems are noted, including arms control, water rights and economic development, and the growth of radical Islamic fundamentalism.

Finally, foreign policy issues are brought forward. These are treated from both the United States and the regional perspective, with a special focus on conflict resolution efforts. The seminar concludes with a projection of Middle East trends into the future. Students will be required to do independent probing on key issues of analysis and policy, and will be given an opportunity to sharpen both oral and written skills, which are useful in all walks of life.

ATTENDANCE: This is a seminar-style course, and participation will be marked. All credit-earning members of the class should be present. Just as in business, government, or politics, occasionally a scheduled appointment must be missed. In case of emergency, a phone call, e-mail message, note under our door, message from roommate, or some other communication should precede an absence. You are responsible for obtaining notes and information on a session you miss.

EXAMINATIONS AND GRADING: Assuming an interest in--but not a terminal neurotic preoccupation with--grades, the following activities will constitute the evaluation system:

per cent of grade date due/to be taken

Student participation 10 per cent every session
Oral Briefing 15 per cent each twice during term
Midterm Exam 30 per cent October 24
Policy Report 20 per cent November 28
Final Class Test 10 per cent December 5

You will never do worse than figuring your score by the above percentages. However, if you improve consistently from earlier exercises to the later ones, you may do better; The instructor reserves the right to factor for improvement over time. Letter grades will be given for all exercises. Late work will be marked down one-third a grade a day work over four days late will not be accepted and an "F" grade assigned, unless previously cleared with the instructor.

POP QUIZZES:: Students are expected to do the reading before each seminar session. If it becomes obvious that students are not doing the reading, the instructors reserve the right to give short 5-10 minute short-answer "pop" quizzes to check on reading diligence. These will be counted under "seminar participation."

ORAL REPORTS: Each student will be required to do two short oral reports--one on an analytical issue based on a book, the second on a policy problem. You will have some selection in the subject from a list drawn up the instructor, and timing will be based on the book/report you choose. Reports will be a maximum of six minutes long and strictly timed. The purpose is to teach you to make brief, pithy reports similar to those you will make all your life, whatever you do. (You may practice your long, declamatory rambling at Two Keys or Alfalfa's on your own time.)

MIDTERM EXAM: This will be conducted during the October 24 class for two hours. The nature of the questions will be explained well before the exam, and there will be some choice among questions.

POLICY REPORT: You must produce a policy report on an issue agreed with the instructor. The report will be approximately 6-8 pages and due Nov. 28 at the beginning of class. Detailed instructions will be given after the midterm.

FINAL EXAM: There will be no formal final exam; there will, however, be a final test on the post-midterm reading during the last class on Dec. 5

SUBJECTS OF STUDY: A detailed topical syllabus follows. Students are expected to do the readings grouped under each seminar period BEFORE the seminar session. You are already one week behind 8-). You are encouraged, even mandated, to search out and read additional works on subjects of particular interest in addition to the required text readings. Suggested readings placed on reserve where possible. A complete list of reserve readings is appended to this syllabus--USE IT. Other materials, including the articles listed below, are available in the reserve boxes in the Vandenbosch Lounge, room 420 in the Patterson Office tower. Other materials may be handed out during the semester. Events are likely to break swiftly in the region this year, and October has traditionally be a time of war. You should also keep abreast of current developments in the region by reading one weekly national news magazine and one daily paper regularly, and developing familiarity with favorite internet sites.

SOURCE/TEXT BOOKS: (available at book stores, or as indicated)

Karin Aggestam, Reframing and Resolving Conflict, Israeli-Palestinian Negotiations, 1988-98 Lund University Press, 1999 (referred to below as Conflict)

William Cleveland, A History of the Modern Middle East, Westview Press, 2000 (referred to below as History)

Deborah Gerner, ed., Understanding the Contemporary Middle East, Lynn Rienner, 2000 (referred to below as Gerner)

David Long and Bernard Reich, The Government and Politics of the Middle East, Westview, 1995 (referred to as LONG below)

Alan Richards and John Waterbury, A Political Economy of the Middle East, Westview Press, second edition. 1996 (referred to below as Richards)

A number of books have been placed on 2-hour and 3-day reserve; they will be noted as (reserve) in the syllabus below; some articles have been placed in boxes in the Van Library (P.O.T. Rm. 420) and will be noted as (box).

Aug. 29 The Middle East: Mapping the Inscrutable. Overview of course, review of concepts. Discussion of bias, Orientalism. Social bases of politics.

Gerner, chs 1-3
History, chs 1-2,7-9
LONG, ch. 1
Richards, chs 2, 3,

Sept. 5 From Imperialism to Modernization. Quick historical review

History, chs 10-13
Carl Brown, Modernization in the Middle East, chs. 1,4,8 (reserve and box)
Gerner, chs. 4-5
Richards, chs 8, 9

Sept. 12 Civil Society: Fact or Fiction?

Gerner, chs 7-9, 11
LONG, ch. 12
Richards, chs 11,12
A.R. Norton, "The Future of Civil Society in the Middle East, Middle East Journal, vol. 47, no. 2, Spring 1993, pp. 205-216 (box)

Sept. 19 Security: Pipe Dream or Real Possibility?.

Richards, chs 13,14
Gerner, ch. 6
Aggestam, chs. 1-3
Daniel Byman, "A Farewell to Arms Inspections," Foreign Affairs, Jan/Feb 2000
pp. 119-132 (box)
Charles G. Cogan, "Wye River, Long Fleuve: The CIA, the PLO, and the Peace
Process," Mediterranean Quarterly, vol. 10, no. 2 Spring 1999 (box)

Sept. 26 The Eastern Arab States. Examination of Iraq, Syria, Jordan, Lebanon

LONG, chs. 5,8,9,10
History, chs 18, 19 (Grad students also skim chs 11-12)

Oct. 3 The Western Arab States. Examination of Egypt, Libya, Soudan, Morocco, Algeria, Tunis

History, 15-16 (Review 18,19)
LONG, chs. 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18

Oct. 10 The Different Drummers: Israel, Turkey, Iran. The three non- Arab Countries.

LONG, chs 2, 3, 11
History, chs 10, 13, 14, 20, 22
Robin Wright, "Iran's New Revolution," Foreign Affairs, Jan/Feb 2000, pp. 133-145
Metin Heper, "Islam and Democracy in Turkey: Toward a Reconciliation?," The
Middle East Journal, vol 51, no. 1, Winter 1997, pp. 32-58 (box)
Don Peretz and Gideon Doron, "Sectarian Politics and the Peace Process: The 1999
Israeli Elections," The Middle East Journal, vol. 54, no. 2, Spring 2000
pp. 258-273 (box)

Oct. 17 The Gulf States. Saudi Arabia, Yemen Oman, Kuwait, Qatat, Bahrain,
and the United Arab Emirates.

LONG, chs 4,6,7
History, chs 12, 21
And either:
F. Greg Gause III, Saudi Arabia Over a Barrel," Foreign Affairs, May/
June 2000, pp. 80-94 (box)
OR (Grad students should read both):
Amy Jaffe and R. A Manning, "The Shocks of a World of Cheap Oil," Foreign
Affairs, Jan/Feb. 2000, pp. 16-29 (box)

Oct. 24 MIDTERM: There will be a TWO-hour midterm

Oct. 31 International Relations in the Middle East. The Middle East and the international system.

History, 23, 24
Esposito, The Islamic Threat: Myth or Reality?, ch. 4
Gerner, Ch. 11 (review) and 13
Payne, The Clash with Distant Cultures, chs 2,3 (optional: ch. 1)
Efstathios Fakiolas, "Continuity and Change in Soviet and Russian Grand
Strategy," Mediterranean Quarterly, vol. 9. No. 2, Spring 1998,
pp. 76-91 (Box)
OPTIONAL: Bernard lewis, "The West and the Middle East, Foreign Affairs,
Sept./Oct. 1996, vol. 75, no. 5, pp 114-130 (Box, in CAPCO anthology)

Nov. 7 Arab-Israeli & Persian Gulf Conflicts: The Endless Struggle.

Aggestam, chs 4-9
Jacob Abadi, "Israel and Saudi Arabia: The Persistence of Hostility and the
Prospects for Normalization, Mediterranean Quarterly, vol. 9. No. 2,
Spring 1998, pp. 19-39 (box)
Payne, Clash, Op. Cit., chs. 4 and 5
Thomas Friedman, From Beirut to Jerusalem, ch. 8 (reserve)
Sharam Chubin, "Iran's Strategic Predicament," The Middle East Journal,
vol. 54, no.1, Winter 2000, pp. 10-24 (box)
Amatzia Brown, "The Effect of Iraqi Sanctions," ," The Middle East Journal,
vol. 54, no. 2, Spring 2000, pp. 194-223(box)

Nov. 14 The Rise of Radical Islamic Fundamentalism

Esposito, Islamic Threat, Op. Cit, chs. 5 and 6
Daniel Pipes, "Islam and Islamicism" Faith and Ideology," The National Interest,
No. 59, Spring 2000, pp. 87-93 (Box)

Nov. 21 Contemporary Political Issues in the Middle East.

Payne, Clash, Op. cit., ch 7
Houman A. Sadri, "Nonalignment as a Foreign Policy Strategy: Dead or
Alive?, Mediterranean Quarterly, vol. 10. No. 2, Spring 1999,
pp. 113-135 (box)
Pia C. Wood, "Europe and Turkey: A relationship under fire," Mediterranean
Quarterly, vol.10. No. 1, Winter 1999, pp. 19-39 (box)

Nov. 28 Foreign Policy Issues

Aggestam, chs 10, 11, review ch. 9
John D. Stempel, Inside the Iranian Revolution, chs 14,15
Jonathan Clark, "The U.S. Foreign Policy Message: Why is it not getting Through?",
Mediterranean Quarterly, vol. 10, No. 1, Winter 1999, pp. Pp. 56-69 (box)
Duncan Clarke, "U.S. Security Assistance to Egypt and Israel: Politically
Untouchable?" The Middle East Journal, Spring 1997, vol. 51, no. 2,
pp. 200-213 (box)

Dec. 5 Whither the Middle East?

Harold Saunders, "An Historic Challenge to Rethink How Nations Relate,"
Ch. 1 in Vamik D. Volkan, et al, eds, The Psychodynamics of International Relationships (box)
Peter W. Rodman, "The World's Resentment," The National Interest, No. 60,
Summer 2000, pp. 33-41 (box)

Robert Kaplan, "The Coming Anarchy," Atlantic Monthly, Feb. 1994,
pp. 44-76 (Box, in CAPCO anthology)