The stress field caused by continental-scale tectonic motion of the earth’s crust is called the "regional stress field." The regional stress field creates directionally oriented horizontal stresses in the crust, called "in-situ stress." Fractures resulting from horizontal stress commonly form in mines as rib cutters or kink zones oriented in the same direction (Hill, 1986; Sames and Moebs, 1991). In the Appalachian and Illinois Basins, the stress field is generally oriented in an east-west to northeast-southwest direction (see Trends). Historical documentation of increased roof-fall occurrence in north–south- and northeast–southwest-oriented headings in the northern Appalachian and Illinois Basins were often caused by horizontal stress (Kent, 1974; Krausse and others, 1979; Blevins and Dopp, 1985; Hill, 1986; Nelson and Bauer, 1991).






Last Modified on 2023-01-05
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