Sources of information for holdfast shape of specific crinoid genera

Note for the genera listed, only certain species of those genera may be known with the shape of holdfast shown, and some may have had different types of holdfasts at different stages of their lives. Listed crinoid holdfast shapes are based on assumed adult holdfasts.


Anomalocrinus; Kallmeyer, no date; Brett and others (2008)

Ancyrocrinus; McIntosh and Schreiber (1971); Brett (1981); Plotnick and Bauer (2014); Seilacher and Mcclintock (2005)

Barycrinus; Meyer and others (1989); Hollis and Ausich (2009)

Caryocrinites; Brett (1978); Thomka and Brett (2015)

Cincinnaticrinus; Ausich and others (1999); Brett and others (2008)

Cupulocrinus; Brett and others (2008)

Cyathocrinites; Meyer and others (1989)

Eucalyptocrinites; Brett (1981); Thompka and Brett (2015)

Glyptocrinus; Brett (1981); Brett and others (2008); Hollis and Ausich (2008)

Halysiocrinus; Ausich and others (1979)

Iocrinus; Brett and others (2008), Hollis and Ausich (2008)

Merocrinus: Kallmeyer (no date); Brett and others (2008)

Pycnocrinus; Ausich and others (1999)



Ausich, W.I., Kammer, T.W. and Lane, N.G., 1979, Fossil communities of the Borden (Mississippian) delta in Indiana and northern Kentucky: Journal of Paleontology, p. 1182–1196.

Ausich, W.I., Hess, H., Brett, C.E. and Simms, M.J., 1999, Upper Ordovician of the Cincinnati, Ohio, area, USA, in Hess, H., Ausich, W.I., Brett, C.E., and Simms, M.J., eds., Fossil Crinoids: Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, p. 75–80.

Brett, C.E., 1978, Attachment structures in the rhombiferan cystoid Caryocrinites and their paleobiological implications: Journal of Paleontology, v. 52, no. 3, p. 717–726.

Brett, C.E., 1981, Terminology and functional morphology of attachment structures in pelmatozoan echinoderms: Lethaia, v. 14, p. 343–370.

Brett, C.E., Deline, B.L., McLaughlin, P.I., Ausich, W.I. and Webster, G.D., 2008, Attachment, facies distribution, and life history strategies in crinoids from the Upper Ordovician of Kentucky, in Ausich, W.I., and Webster, G.D., eds., Echinoderm paleobiology: Indiana University Press, Bloomington, p. 22–52.

Guensburg, T.E., 1992, Paleoecology of hardground encrusting and commensal crinoids, Middle Ordovician, Tennessee: Journal of Paleontology, v. 66, no. 1, p. 129–147.

Hollis, K.A. and Ausich, W.I., 2008, The Holdfast of Gilbertsocrinus tuberosus (Mississippian, Crinoidea): Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, v. 45, no. 2, p.135–140.

Hollis, K.A. and Ausich, W.I., 2009, Ontogeny and lifehistory strategy of Barycrinus (Crinoidea, Mississippian): Lethaia, v. 42, no. 2, p. 138-145.

Kalllmeyer, J., no date, Beginners guide to identifying Cincinnatian crinoids: Cincinnati, Drydredgers website,, accessed 12/14/2022.

McIntosh, G.C. and Schreiber, R.L., 1971, Morphology and taxonomy of the Middle Devonian crinoid Ancyrocrinus bulbosus Hall 1862: University of Michigan, Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology, v. 23, no. 25, p. 381–403.

Plotnick, R.E. and Bauer, J., 2014, Crinoids aweigh: experimental biomechanics of Ancyrocrinus holdfasts, in Bauer, J., and Hembree, D.I., eds, Experimental approaches to understanding fossil organisms: Springer, Topics in Geobiology, v. 41, p. 320.

Seilacher, A., and Macclintock, C., 2005, Crinoid anchoring strategies for soft-bottom dwelling: Palaios, v. 20, no. 3, p. 224-240.

Thomka, J.R., and Brett, C.E., 2015, Paleoecology of pelmatozoan attachment structures from a hardground surface in the middle Silurian Massie Formation, southeastern Indiana: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, and Palaeoecology, v. 420, p. 1–12.

Thomka, J.R. and Brett, C.E., 2014, Taphonomy of diploporite (Echinodermata) holdfasts from a Silurian hardground, southeastern Indiana, United States: Palaeoecologic and stratigraphic significance: Geological Magazine, v. 151, no. 4, p. 649–665.





Last Modified on 2023-01-19
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