Other types of bioturbation


  • Borings: Structures left in hard substrates, wood, and the shells or hard parts of organisms by organisms that bore into structures for feeding and other behaviors.
  • Excrement (Coprolites): Individual fecal droppings and strings of droppings left by organisms.
  • Rooting structures (Rhyzoliths): Structures left in substrate by plant roots.





Behaviors recorded by traces (ethology)

Where traces occur in rock beds (stratinomy, toponomy)


Other types of traces (borings, excrement, rooting)

Bioturbation intensity and ichnofabric

Some Kentucky trace fossils

References cited



Last Modified on 2023-01-05
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