References cited

  • Bottjer, D.J., Droser, M.L., and Jablonski, D., 1987, Bathymetric trends in the history of trace fossils, in Bottjer, D.J., ed., New concepts in the use of biogenic sedimentary structures for paleoenvironmental interpretation: Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists, Pacific Section, Volume and Guidebook, p. 57–65.
  • Bromley, R.G., 1996, Trace fossils—Biology, taphonomy, and applications [2d ed.]: London, Chapman and Hall, 384 p.
  • Bromley, R.G., and Ekdale, A.A., 1986, Composite ichnofabrics and tiering of burrows: Geological Magazine, v. 123, no. 1, p. 59–65.
  • Chaplin, J.R., 1980, Stratigraphy, trace fossil associations, and depositional environments in the Borden Formation (Mississippian), northeastern Kentucky: Kentucky Geological Survey, Guidebook and roadlog for Geological Society of Kentucky 1980 Field Conference, ser. 10, 114 p.
  • Droser, M.L., and Bottjer, D.J.,1986, A semiquantitative field classification of ichnofabric: Journal of Sedimentary Research, v. 56, no. 4, p. 558–559.
  • Ekdale, A.A., Bromley, R.G., and Pemberton, S.G., 1984, Ichnology; the use of trace fossils in sedimentology and stratigraphy: Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists, Short Course No. 15, 317 p.
  • Frey, R.W., 1973, Concepts in the study of biogenic sedimentary structures: Journal of Sedimentary Research, v. 43, no. 1, p. 6–19.
  • Knaust, D., and Bromley, R.G., eds., 2012, Trace fossils as indicators of sedimentary environments: Amsterdam, Elsevier,Developments in Sedimentology, v. 64, 924 p.
  • Martinsson, A., 1970, Toponomy of trace fossils, in Crimes, T.P., and Harper, J.C., eds., Trace fossils: Geological Journal, Special Issue, v. 3, p. 323–330.
  • Reineck, H.E., 1963, Sedimentgefüge im Bereich der südliche Nordsee: Abhandlungen Senckenbergishen Naturforsche de Gesellschaft, v. 505, p. 1–138.
  • Reineck, H. E., 1967, Parameter von Schichtung and bioturbation: Geologi Rundschau, v. 56, p. 420–438.
  • Seilacher, A., 1953a, Studien zur Palichnologie I. Uber die methoden der Palichnologie: Neues Jahrbuch Geologie Palaontologie, Abh. 96, p. 421–452.
  • Seilacher, A., 1953b, Studien zur Palichnologie II. Die fossilen Ruhespuren (Cubichnia): Neues Jahrbuch Geologie Palaontologie, Abh. 98, p. 87–124.
  • Seilacher, A., 1964, Biogenic sedimentary structures, in Imbrie, J., and Newell, N., eds., Approaches to paleoecology: New York, Wiley, p. 296–316.
  • Seilacher, D., 1967, Bathymetry of trace fossils: Marine Geology, v. 5, nos. 5-6, p. 413–428.
  • Taylor, A.M., and Goldring, R., 1993, Description and analysis of bioturbation and ichnofabric: Journal of the Geological Society of London, v. 150, p. 141-148.







Behaviors recorded by traces (ethology)

Where traces occur in rock beds (stratinomy, toponomy)


Other types of traces (borings, excrement, rooting)

Bioturbation intensity and ichnofabric

Some Kentucky trace fossils

References cited



Last Modified on 2023-01-05
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