Associations of tobacco use and consumption with rurality among patients with psychiatric disorders: Does smoke-free policy matter?

People with psychiatric disorders (PDs) have high risks for tobacco use and associated health effects; however, little is known about differences in tobacco use status and consumption by urban or rural residence. Among patients with PDs, we examined the association of smoke-free policy on tobacco use by rural/urban residence METHOD: A cross-sectional retrospective study (N = 2060) among patients in a psychiatric facility was conducted. Multi-logistic and multilinear regression analyses assessed differences in outcomes stratified by rural/urban status.

Results: Among rural residents, a substance use history (odds ratios [ORs[ = 2.82, 95% CI: 2.01-3.96), high school education (OR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.51-0.98), older age (OR = 0.99, 95% CI: 0.98-1.00), and longer length of hospital stay (OR = 0.99, 95% CI: 0.98-1.00) were associated with tobacco use. Among urban residents, male sex (OR = 1.38, 95% CI: 1.02-1.86), a substance use history (OR = 2.61, 95% CI: 1.86-3.66), and externalizing disorder diagnosis (OR = 2.72, 95% CI: 1.35-5.48) correlated with tobacco use. Increased tobacco consumption among rural residents was associated with being male (β = 0.12, p = 0.007) and having less than a high school education (β = 0.14, P = 0.001). Whereas, White ethnicity (β = 0.14, p = 0.006), having less than a high school education (β = 0.11, p = 0.022), and a psychotic disorder diagnosis (β = 0.25, p = 0.038) were associated with greater tobacco consumption in urban residents. Smoke-free policy was not associated with tobacco use (OR = 1.08, 95% CI: 0.87-1.34) and consumption (β = 0.05, p = 0.134).

Conclusions: Despite higher rates of tobacco use among rural patients with PDs, they have similar risk factors as their urban counterparts. However, residing in a location with a smoke-free policy may not contribute to tobacco use behaviors among those with PDs.

Keywords: psychiatric disorder; rurality; smoke-free policy; tobacco consumption; tobacco use.

The Psychometric Properties of the Minnesota Tobacco Withdrawal Scale Among Patients with Mental Illness

Background and Objectives:

Approximately 65% of psychiatric inpatients experience moderate-to-severe nicotine withdrawal (NW), a set of symptoms appearing within 24 hr after an abrupt cessation or reduction of use of tobacco-containing products in those using nicotine daily for at least a couple of weeks. The Minnesota Tobacco Withdrawal Scale (MTWS) is a widely used instrument for detecting NW. However, the psychometric properties of the MTWS have not previously been examined among patients with serious mental illness (SMI) undergoing tobacco-free hospitalization. The objective of this study was to examine the validity and reliability of the MTWS among patients with SMI during tobacco-free psychiatric hospitalization.



Reliability was tested by examining Cronbach’s α and item analysis. Validity was examined through hypothesis testing and exploratory factor analysis (N = 255).



The reliability analysis yielded a Cronbach’s α coefficient of .763, an inter-item correlations coefficient of .393, and item-total correlations between .291 and .691. Hypothesis testing confirmed the construct validity of the MTWS, and an exploratory factor analysis yielded a unidimensional scale.



The MTWS demonstrated adequate reliable and valid psychometric properties for measuring NW among patients with SMI. Nurses and other health-care professionals may use this instrument in clinical practice to identify patients with SMI experiencing NW. The MTWS is psychometrically sound for capturing NW during tobacco-free psychiatric hospitalization. Future research should examine the efficacy of the MTWS in measuring NW in this population over an extended period of hospitalization.

Patient-Centered Care Helps Overcome Mental Illness and Tobacco Use

Dr. Zim Okoli is featured in the Lexington Herald-Leader and UKNOW discussing a central focus of his research on patients with mental illness and nicotine use. He highlights the need to have a patient-centered care approach. Read the full 2015 article, “Patient-Centered Care Helps Overcome Mental Illness and Tobacco Use."

A cross-sectional analysis of factors associated with the intention to engage in tobacco treatment among inpatients in a state psychiatric hospital.

WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: People admitted to psychiatric facilities have high rates of tobacco use and hospitalizations present an opportunity for patients to have conversations…