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Just-In-Time Teaching

Just-In-Time Teaching (or JiTT) is an approach that was developed at the beginning of the World Wide Web in the mid-1990s that worked to incorporate web-based study assignments that would guide an active learning class. The feedback from the web-based assignments would inform the instructor as to what they should focus on in class, and thus provide “just in time” or targeted instruction. The three goals of JiTT are:

  1. To maximize the efficacy of the classroom session, where human instructors are present.
  2. To structure the out-of-class time for maximum learning benefit.
  3. To create and sustain team spirit. Students and instructors work as a team toward the same objective, to help all students pass the course with the maximum amount of retainable knowledge.

The approach was largely used in the sciences, with the National Science Foundation providing funding to develop this approach further. Any subject or discipline that requires students to understand and apply theories or concepts could benefit from this approach. The staff at CELT can help you see if JiTT is right for you and to develop the web-based or other digital exercises needed for the approach, as well as ways to make the subsequent classroom time into more a more active learning environment.



There are two books on JiTT, Just in Time Teaching: Blending Active Learning with Web Technology (1999) and the most recently published Just in Time Teaching: Across the Disciplines, and Across the Academy (2009). The accompanying website to the 1999 book in JiTT:


Other resources: