Addressing Opioid Safety-Related Knowledge Gaps and Concerns of Kentucky First Responders

Currently, there are no evidence-based training interventions for first responders that addresses the gap in knowledge regarding protection against opioids. The research proposed in this application seeks to resolve this gap in knowledge regarding opioid protection through a first-responder training intervention. The hypothesis of this study is that the training intervention (format guided by focus groups) will significantly increase the knowledge, self- efficacy, and outcome expectancies regarding opioid safety of first responders in the state of Kentucky. The specific aims are to 1) compare pre and post-intervention knowledge, self-efficacy, and outcome expectancies among Kentucky first responders of six sites (three rural and three urban EMS, Fire, and Police departments), and 2) Compare pre and post-intervention first responder opioid exposure. We will partner with an EMS, Fire, and Police department in Harrison County, a rural Kentucky county and with an EMS, Fire, and Police department in Fayette County, an urban Kentucky county in order to conduct the study. Harrison and Fayette counties were selected on the basis of their 2016 numbers of drug overdose deaths of 23 and 162, respectively.9 Enrolled participants will complete an entrance questionnaire including questions on demographic information, opioid safety-related knowledge, self-efficacy, outcome expectancies, and opioid exposure. They will then complete a training intervention. Four weeks later, they will complete a follow-up questionnaire.