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Key References


In spite of the wide acceptance of the idea of global citizenship, there is neither agreement about what it really means nor is there consensus on how to measure it. According to Bryant (2006), global citizenship calls for participatory action in alleviating local and global inequality and the capacity to affect the well-being of individuals and the long-term sustainability of the planet. Andrzejewski and Alessio (1999) define global citizenship as knowledge and skills for social and environmental justice. Dobson (2003) offers a view of global citizenship in which issues of justice, the environment, and civic obligations are key determinants. Key references on global citizenship include:  

  • Andrzejewski, J. & Alessio, J. (1999, Spring). “Education for Global Citizenship and Social Responsibility.” Progressive Perspectives: 1998-99 Monograph Series. 1, 2.
  • American  Council on Education. (1998). Educating for Global Competence.  Washington, D.C.
  • Braskamp, L. (2008, September). “Developing Global Citizens”.  Journal of College and Character, 10, 1.
  • Bryant, D. (2006). “The Everyone, Everywhere: Global Dimensions of Citizenship.” In Bo. Holland & J. Meeropol (Eds.) A More Perfect Vision: The Future of Campus Engagement. Providence, RI: Campus Compact. []
  • Dobson, A. (2003). Citizenship and the Environment. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
  • Dower, N. & Williams, J. (Eds.) (2002). Global Citizenship: A Critical Introduction.  New York, NY: Routledge.
  • Flanagan, C., Syvertsen, A., Stout, M. (2007, May). “Civic Engagement Models: Tapping Adolescents’ Civic Engagement.” Circle Working Paper 55.  The Center for Information & Research on Civic Learning and Engagement.
  • Hunter, B., White, G. and Godbey, G. (2006, Fall). “What Does it Mean to Be Globally Competent?” Journal of Studies in International Education, 10, 3: 267-285.
  • Noddings, N. (2005). Educating Citizens for Global Awareness.  New York, NY: Teachers College Press.
  • Paige, M., Stallman, E. & Josić, J. (May 27, 2008).  “Study Abroad for Global Engagement: A Preliminary Report on the SAGE Research Project.” NAFSA: Association of International Educators. Conference Presentation.
  • Parekh, B. (2003). “Cosmopolitanism and Global Citizenship.” Review of International Studies, 291: 3-17. 


It is beyond the scope of this study to measure discipline-specific learning. Academic development is understood as a multi-dimensional construct that entails two interrelated, but not necessarily interchangeable constructs: academic self-concept and academic self-efficacy.  Key references on academic development include:

  • Bandura, A. (1986). Social Foundations of Thought and Action. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
  • Bong, M., Clark, R. (1999, June). “Comparison Between Self-Concept and Self-Efficacy in Academic Motivation Research.” Educational Psychologist. 34, 3: 139-153.
  • Choi, N. (2005, January). “Self-Efficacy and Self-Concept as Predictors of College Students’ Academic Performance.” Psychology in the Schools., 42, 2: 197-205.
  • Eachus, P. (1993). “Development of the Health Student Self-Efficacy Scale.” Perceptual and Motor Skills, 77: 670.
  • Gresham, F., Evans, S., Elliot, S. (1988). “Academic and Social Self-Efficacy Scale: Development and Initial Validation.” Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 6: 125-138.
  • House, J.D. (1992). “The Relationship Between Academic Self-Concept , Achievement-related Expectancies, and College Attrition.” Journal of College Student Development, 33: 5-10.
  • Reynolds, W. (1988). “Measurement of Academic Self-Concept in College Students.” Journal of Personality Assessment. 52, 2: 223-240.
  • Woodside, B., Wong, E., & Wiest, D. (1999). “The Effect of Student-Faculty Interaction on College Students’ Academic Achievement and Self-Concept.” Education. 119: 730-733. 

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