SELF-EFFICACY: THE EXERCISE OF CONTROL
An outline composed by Gio Valiante
CHAPTER 3 - SOURCES OF SELF-EFFICACY
There are four principal sources of self-efficacy beliefs
The cognitive processing of efficacy information involves two separate functions.
- Enactive mastery experiences
- Vicarious experiences (comparisons)
- Verbal persuasions and allied types of social influences
- Physiological and affective states
ENACTIVE MASTERY EXPERIENCE is the most influential source of efficacy information because they provide the most authentic evidence of whether one can muster what it takes to succeed
- Types of information people attend to and use as indicators of personal
- Combinations, rules or heuristics that people use to weight and integrate
efficacy information from different sources in construing beliefs of their
- Successes build a robust sense of efficacy. Failures undermine it, especially
if failures occur before a sense of efficacy is firmly established (timing is important).
- A resilient sense of efficacy requires experience in overcoming obstacles
through perseverant effort
Although success usually raises efficacy beliefs and repeated failures usually lower them, "the impact of performance attainments on efficacy beliefs depends on what is made of those performances" (81)
VICARIOUS EXPERIENCE (86)
- Vicarious experiences mediated through modeled attainments:
- Modeling is an effective way to raise efficacy
- People must often appraise their capabilities in relation to the attainments of others
Process Governing the Impact of Modeling on Self-Efficacy (87)
- Several processes by which modeling exerts its effects on efficacy beliefs
- Social comparisons
- Similar others
- Different others
- Conditions under which self-efficacy appraisals are especially sensitive to
- Uncertainty about one's capabilities
- Variability in the strength of other [interacting] modes of influence
- Like when vicarious experience and direct experience rub each other.
- Modeled performances to alter efficacy focus on
- models repeatedly engage in threatening activities to demonstrate how feared objects and people are most likely to behave in differing situations predictability reduces stress and increases preparedness for coping with threats
- Model demonstrates highly effective strategies for handling threats in whatever situations might arise
- "What phobic thinking renders frightening, instructive modeling makes predictable and personally controllable" (88)
- Observational Learning
- Attentional process - determine what is selectively observed
- Retention process - transforming and structuring information about events for memory representation in the form of rules and conceptions
- Production process - translation of conceptions into appropriate courses of
- Motivational process
- "Creer and Miklich found that observing oneself performing successfully not only improves the targeted performance but also leads people to exercise better control over other aspects of their daily functioning" (91).
- Young children do not use comparative ability information, but that tends to increase as they get older
- Modes of Modeling Influence (92)
- Television and other visual media
- The impact of symbolic modeling on efficacy beliefs can be further enhanced by cognitive rehearsal (93)
- Modeling with cognitive rehearsal builds stronger perceived efficacy than
- Development of cognitive skills
- The problem of observability is overcome by having models verbalize their thought processes and strategies aloud as they engage in activities
- Verbal modeling of cognitive skills builds self-efficacy and promotes cognitive skill development.
- Self-modeling of capabilities
- Hesitancies, mistakes, and external aids are edited from videotape
- Sometimes the videotape includes recoupling of successful performances to more demanding situations (94).
- "apparently it is hard to beat observed personal attainment as a self-persuader of capability" (94)
- Structured success situations
- Structuring performance tasks in ways that ensure progressive mastery or arranging conditions that bring out the best of one's capabilities.
- Capture successes on videotape for subsequent replay.
- Observing ones faulty performances undermines efficacy and impairs performance.
- "self-modeling operates largely by enhancing belief in one's skills" (94).
- "review of videotapes of oneself in a socially skilled way has been shown to reduce anxiety and depression in depressed individuals" (95).
Performance Similarity (96)
- "Persons who are similar or slightly higher in ability provide the most informative
comparative information for gauging ones own capabilities" (96)
- Neither outperforming those of lesser ability nor being surpassed by vastly superior conveys much information on the level of ones capability
- thus, one must keep in mind when trying to raise someone's performance
that they can be compares to similar models, but for them to see that model fail after being told they have the same abilities is crippling. To see a model fail after being told they are slightly higher does not hurt them.
- Perceived dissimilarity can override the benefits of modeled strategies
Attribute Similarity (98)
- Attribute similarity increases the power of modeling influences
- Non-athletic female raises women's perceived physical efficacy and muscle
endurance whereas that of an athletic male model does not
- Certain attributes that are indicative of performance
- Educational and SES levels
- Ethnic designations
- (age and gender carry the heavy load)
Multiplicity and Diversity of Modeling (99)
- Exposure to multiple skilled models produces stronger beliefs on ones efficacy
- Diversified modeling is superior to single model
Coping versus Masterly Modeling (99)
- Masterly models - perform calmly and faultlessly
- Coping models - overcome difficulties by tenacious effort
- Models may display decreasing stress
- Demonstrate strategies for managing stressful situations
- Instruction is more helpful than emotive modeling
- people may benefit by watching models overcome difficulties by
Model Competence (101)
- Competent models command more attention and exert greater instructional
influence than do incompetent ones.
VERBAL PERSUASION (101)
Framing of Performance Feedback (101)
- Persuasory efficacy information is often conveyed in the evaluative feedback given
- Evaluative feedback highlighting personal capabilities raises efficacy
- Feedback that children improves through effort enhances perceived efficacy
- Ability feedback in the early stages has an especially notable impact on
- People are more motivated to avoid potential losses in the present than to
secure potential future gains.
Knowledgeableness and Credibility (104)
- Success involves more that natural talent
- Many people have talent and do little with it.
- Self-regulatory capability to mobilized ad sustain perseverant effort is key.
- Handling pressure and failure.
- Self-motivational and self-management capabilities are important.
- Persuasory efficacy appraisal depend on
- who persuader are
- their credibility and knowledge
- Personal versus social appraisals
- Most people believe they know themselves and their predicaments better than others do
- Persuasory efforts are only as strong as the confidence in the person issuing them
- When individuals are more confident about their self-appraisals than in the judgments of others they are not swayed by what they are told about their capabilities (105)
- Skill does not confer judgment
- Superstar athletes are not always best judges of athletic talent
- Great teachers are not always those with the highest academic abilities
Degree of Appraisal Disparity (105)
- Differences may be minimal, moderate (the most desirable level if it is moderately high), or marked
- Skilled efficacy builders do more than convey positive appraisals or inspirational
- They structure activities that bring about success.
- They encourage people to measure their success in terms of self-improvement rather than triumphs over others
PHYSIOLOGICAL AND AFFECTIVE STATES (107)
- Somatic indicants (sweating, tension, shakes)
- Physiological indicants (fatigue, windedness, aches, and pains)
- Mood states
- "Affective states can have generalized effects on personal efficacy in diverse spheres of functioning. Therefore, the fourth major way of altering efficacy beliefs is to enhance physical status, reduce stress levels and negative emotional proclivities, and correct misinterpretations of bodily states" (106)
Perceived Sources of Activation (107)
- Speakers who attribute their sweating to physical discomforts of the room read
their physiology quite differently than those who view it as stress
- Self-Appraisal from arousal cues raise a number of intriguing questions
- How do young children come to view bodily states?
- How do they learn to tell what emotion they are experiencing?
- How do they learn that arousal cues signify particular emotions are predictive of levels of functioning?
- In the social cognitive view, knowledge about bodily states is acquired largely through social labeling coordinated with experienced events (107)
- Arousing experiences contain three significant events(1 private, 2 observable)
- Environmental elicitors(private)
- Expressive reactions(public)
- Social labeling(public)
- "Therefore adults must infer the presence of the internal affective state in young children from their expressive reactions and from environmental elicitors known to produce particular types of emotions" (108)
- "Through repeated social linkage of situational elicitors, expressive reactions, and internal arousal children learn to interpret and differentiate their affective experiences" (108)
Level of Activation (108)
- It is not the sheer intensity if emotional and physical reactions that is important but
rather how they are perceived and interpreted
- Arousal can be debilitating(low achievers) or energizing(high achievers)
- Moderate levels of arousal heighten attentiveness, whereas high arousal
Construal Biases (109)
- Low efficacy heightens sensitivity to bodily states
- The heart races alike in fear, euphoria, and vigorous physical exertion
- Optimal levels of activations depends on how the arousal is construed
- People who view the arousal as personal inadequacies are likely to lower their efficacy
- People who see arousal (pre-performance nervousness, butterflies) as common reactions are more likely to benefit
- thus, it is the perception of the arousal, not the intensity nor the nature of
Impact of Mood on Self-Efficacy Judgement (111)
- Mood states can bias attention and affect how events are interpreted, cognitively
organized and retrieved from memory.
- People learn faster if what they learn is congruent with their mood
- Recall is better if they are in the same mood as when they learn them initially
- Intense moods exert stronger influence than weak ones
- Despondency retards everything
- Mood Biases
- Affective priming - past successes and failures are stored as memories
- Negative mood activates thoughts of past failings
- Positive mood activates thoughts of past accomplishments
- Cognitive priming - specific successes and failures that induce affect, also produce cognition that directly cue thoughts of other past successes and failures
- This view places greater emphasis on the thought content of the inducing even than on the aroused affect as the primer (112)
- Affective State influences evaluative judgements
- Selects mood congruent memories
- People use affective reactions (as opposed to recall information) to inform their mood
- good mood = positive evaluations
- bad mood = negative evaluations
- Induced positive mood enhances perceived efficacy
- Moods aroused by recall of happy and sad romantic experiences
- Perceived heterosexual efficacy,
- Social efficacy
- Athletic efficacy . . . as well as other types of coping efficacy
- Mood can bias how much efficacy is derived from experiences
- Success under positive mood spawns high level of perceived efficacy
- Failures under negative mood breed a low sense of personal efficacy
- People who fail under a happy mood overestimate their capabilities
- Those who succeed under a sad mood underestimate their capabilities
- "The impact of mood on self-efficacy is at least partially mediated by selective recall of past successes and failures" (113).
INTEGRATION OF EFFICACY INFORMATION (113)
- " There has been little research on how people process multidimensional efficacy
beliefs; there is every reason to believe, however, that efficacy judgements are governed by some common judgmental processes" (114).
- Integrations rules may vary
- Combine efficacy factors additively - the more indicants there are, the stronger the belief of personal capability
- Relative weighting rule in which some factors are weighted more heavily than others
- Multiplicative combinations rule in which the conjoint impact of factors on efficacy beliefs is greater than simply their additive effect
- Configurally - particular factor is given different weight depending on other available sources of efficacy information (114)
Warning! Chapters are still under construction.