Bloomfield is a northern Nelson county town. A post office named Middleburg opened on the site in 1803. The town of Bloomfield is said to have been founded and named in 1817 by Dr. John Bemiss. The name is said to be taken from the name of his wife, a Miss Bloomer, and his son-in-law, a Mr. Merrifield. The post office was renamed in 1818. The population in 1990 was 845.