Fleming-Neon is a northeast Letcher county town located on the headwaters of the North Fork of the Kentucky River. Fleming was built in 1913 by the Elkhorn Coal Corp. and named for its first president, George W. Fleming. The post office opened in 1914. Neon (the source of the name is obscure) was established in 1913 as a trading center to serve the nearby coal towns, including Fleming and McRoberts. A post office operated in the area as Chip from 1902 until 1915 and the Neon post office opened in 1926. Fleming and Neon merged in 1978 and the population of Fleming-Neon in 2010 was 770.