Patterson School students are encouraged to craft very personalized programs of study to best match their individual needs and desires. Accordingly, our program has very limited course requirements. All students must take our foundation course DIP 777 and be proficient in statistics. The latter requires either taking Statistics 570 or providing proof of having successfully completed a similar class previously. Students that were not exposed to both macro and microeconomics as part of their undergraduate education, or who desire supplementary economic work, may take an intensive two-week class (no cost and not for credit) comprised of Patterson School students only that is provided prior to August orientation. All students are also expected to participate in the Patterson School's wide range of extracurricular program activities.
DIP 777 is offered each fall and normally includes the entire new entering class. The course is team taught by Patterson School core faculty. This class is designed to ensure a standard level of knowledge about diplomacy and international commerce, both substance and skills. In addition to a basic exploration of diplomatic history and practice, it reviews major economic and international relations theory. On the practical side, the course concentrates on developing students' professional writing and public speaking skills, building a solid foundation for further Patterson School work.
The goal of this course is to provide students with a foundation in the major debates on national security policy. The first third of the course concentrates on many of the classic works of national security, as well as commentaries on those works. The second third of the course focuses on contemporary policy debates in the United States on grand strategy and national security. The final third examines the policy process and focuses on specific national security problems facing the United States.
The political geography of the East Asian region has been transformed over the last two hundred years, a process that continues today. The growing importance of East Asia to the global economy makes security competition in the region problematic to the entire world. Although the region has avoided direct Great Power conflict since 1953, security institutions have been slow to develop. This course examines the security interests of the major powers in the region, with special emphasis on areas of potential conflict.
European international security has been characterized by a greater degree of institutionalization than anywhere in the world. Of the several organizations that manage intra-European conflict and European relations with the rest of the world, NATO and the European Union are only the most prominent. This course examines the history of this institutionalization, probes the current status of such arrangements, and lays the groundwork for forming expectations for future European behavior. The course also examines the foreign policy and security interests of several representative European powers, focusing on a few areas of potential conflict.
This graduate seminar is designed to advance the professional development of students by exposing them in depth to one of the most essential aspects of diplomatic activity – the use of mediation to resolve international conflict. The principal perspective examined is that of the mediating party, with an exploration of theoretical and practical aspects of different negotiating approaches. The merits of various mediators, and alternate strategies and tactics, will be assessed by research and analysis of a wide range of case studies. Both interstate and intrastate/civil conflicts will be examined.
This course is designed to prepare students to function comfortably in either the trade policy formulation (public trade policy producers) or commercial environment (policy consumers). Although the course is organized in two discrete sections, throughout the course the implications of policy on commercial practice – and the reverse – will be stressed. Students are encouraged to consider the present state of the nexus between the two, and to postulate how coordination might be improved. At the conclusion of the course, students should understand (1) each of the key entities which play an important role in global trade policy and their respective functions, (2) how international business is transacted, and (3) the implications of trade policy for global business.
Details are provided below under PS 737.
This seminar provides a comprehensive view of international intelligence. Lectures and discussions cover the real role of intelligence as it has been and is being practiced, as well as how it is used or misused by policy makers. The emphasis is upon developing an understanding of this craft – which is misunderstood by most of the public, the media and academia – and on developing the skills needed for a career in intelligence collection and analysis.
This course examines the myriad challenges facing the countries of Sub-Saharan Africa in trying to develop their economic, social and political institutions in an era of increasing globalization. It will examine development issues of key interest including agriculture, energy, HIV/AIDS, and the role of international actions like the World Bank, IMF, and non-profit organizations. The course concludes with a focus on three countries (Rwanda, Cameroon, and Zimbabwe) that typify the challenges and opportunities facing Africa today.
This seminar explores diplomatic issues associated with developing, maintaining, securing, restricting, and eliminating nuclear weapons. It will include brief reviews of the science behind nuclear weapons and the history of arms control, as well as a detailed examination of the success and failure of non-proliferation. There will be a significant focus on current challenges: strengthening the non-proliferation regime, nuclear force modernization, missile defense, "loose nukes," strategic arms control, and current diplomatic maneuvering regarding states pursuing nuclear weapons programs. The future of American nuclear weapons policy will be assessed, as will that of other key nuclear weapons states.
This course examines the diplomatic context of Russian foreign and security policy since the collapse of the Soviet Union. The West needs Russia's cooperation in arms control, Afghanistan, and Iran, but at the same time, Russia remains a challenge for democracy promotion and conflict resolution in the post-Soviet space, as well as securing Caspian energy. This course will investigate the background for and current development of Russian foreign and security policy and diplomatic efforts to effectively engage Moscow. There are three parts to the course: historical roots of Russian foreign and security policy, contemporary developments, and the unique challenges Russia poses in the post-Soviet space, Asia and the Middle East.
Weak states have been featured as a grave threat to American and European national security and are the subject of research in several academic spheres, including post-Soviet transition, African studies, development studies, security studies, and historical sociology. This seminar examines theoretical approaches to weak states in the context of international security while reviewing concrete examples and the specific threats they pose. The course reviews how the policy community has measured the weak state, revealing discrepancies in the quantifiable parameters, definitions, and categorizations, and analyzes the efforts taken to address state weakness (in particular via foreign economic and security assistance).
This course surveys the competing explanations of major states' foreign policies in international relations literature, examining three broadly-drawn topics. First, it probes comparative foreign policy as a field of study and the methods used to study it. Second, it analyzes the foreign policy making process – individual-level analysis, state-level, system-level, and the impact of non-state actors on states' foreign policy. Third, it looks at the foreign policy of different types of states – hegemonic (US), strong powers (EU, Germany, France, Great Britain), old and rising powers (Russia, China, Japan, India), regional powers (Turkey, Iran, Nigeria, South Africa, Brazil, Venezuela), middle powers (Canada, Australia), and weaker states (Georgia and Ukraine).
This course explores the historical evolution of diplomacy, and then focuses on post WWII diplomatic practice and especially the dynamics of diplomacy since the end of the Cold War. Emphasis will be placed on diplomacy's role in the international system, new tasks for diplomacy, and enhancing diplomatic skills in a new paradigm.
This seminar course explores how economic policy instruments are used to achieve foreign policy goals. Topics covered include trade negotiations, the international financial system, trade and financial sanctions, energy security, counter-terrorism, and Russian and Chinese economic statecraft techniques. The course stresses the use of economic and political theory and quantitative analysis to address contemporary issues. Prerequisites: DIP 740 and STAT 570 or consent of instructor.
This course uses an interactive computer model of the world's political and economic systems to explore policy and intelligence questions from a quantitative point of view. The emphasis is on long-range global issues, how assumptions can affect policy, and how policies can affect outcomes. Topics include demographic change, economic growth, environmental change, energy security, social instability, and war. Prerequisites: DIP 740 and STAT 570 or consent of instructor.
This multidisciplinary course uses contemporary studies of negotiation and bargaining from the individual to the international level. Students will examine both public (diplomatic) and private (commercial) examples, including case studies and practice negotiations. Group and national differences are explored, as well as the content and environment of negotiations.
This course uses the tools of economic analysis and economic statecraft to examine energy security. It will look at the connection between energy and the economy in both the U.S. and other states, and the connections between energy and military security and power. It will include a detailed review of the U.S. energy economy, the international energy market, the economies of the major Middle Eastern states, and the Russian economy. At the end of the course each student will understand the history of energy security, be aware of the data sources for current policy analysis, be able to use the relevant tools of economic analysis including econometrics, and be familiar with the energy security policy debate both in the United States and in key foreign countries.
This course is an introduction to "international political economy" — the interaction of politics and economics within the world economic system. The term globalization itself is used to suggest deepening economic ties among countries, and this course will explore the nature of those ties, the impact of globalization on domestic and international economic affairs, the policy choices facing governments, and the outlook for the future of globalization. The first half of the semester will be devoted to a review of the history, governance, and theoretical underpinnings of international trade and finance. The latter half of the class will focus on the north-south divide and the backlash against globalization.
There is currently no master's thesis requirement, and a thesis may not be submitted in lieu of taking the written and oral comprehensive exams. Nevertheless, some students may choose for their own purposes to prepare a formal thesis.
Students will gain familiarity with the key military policy issues that confront government officials, and they will learn to evaluate the claims of journalists and advocacy organizations that confront informed American opinion on a day-to-day basis.
This course studies the relationship between politics, economics, and diplomacy in the Middle East. Beginning with the political structure and social groups in key countries, it then moves to analyze the network of international relations both within the Middle East and between the region and other powers. It concludes with an examination of the interaction between politics and diplomacy and a projection of future developments.
May be repeated to a maximum of 12 hours.
This course focuses on the knowledge and skills needed for a successful international career. It is designed to ensure a basic level of shared knowledge, hone professional skills, promote networking, provide exposure to key institutions and their operations, and explore fundamental issues of responsibility and ethics.
This multidisciplinary graduate course investigates policy questions and the policy process surrounding key developments in international sciences and technology. This course focuses on the intersection of scientific research, technological applications and change, and business and governmental activities in these areas that impact upon international relations.
Specially designed independent study course taken under the supervision of various instructors. May be repeated for a maximum of six credits.
An interdisciplinary, topical, or experimental course to be approved by the Director of the program and Dean of the Graduate School.
The purpose is to attain an understanding of the theories, processes, and practices through which global politics are organized and political, economic, and social outcomes are governed. We examine various actors, including international and regional governmental and nongovernmental organizations. We evaluate how these actors conduct governance in major issue areas of security, economic development, trade, human rights, and the environment.
This course build on the principles of economics to analyze the problems in achieving an efficient allocation of resources. It provides the theoretical concepts for evaluating environmental policies and the tools necessary in the application of benefit/cost analysis.
This course surveys a variety of current public policies that influence the agricultural and rural economies. Students are exposed to the conflicting views of those concerned with food and agricultural policy issues in an international economy. Economic principles are used to evaluate alternatives in terms of the general welfare of society.
This course build on the principles of economics to analyze the problems in achieving an efficient allocation of resources. It provides the theoretical concepts for evaluating environmental policies and the tools necessary in the application of benefit/cost analysis.
This course analytically examines current empirical research in the area of agricultural trade.
An anthropological approach to the cultural, political, and economic experiences of people living under state socialism and through its demise. We ask how everyday life and social relations in this region are being affected by emerging market relations and democracy. Reading includes ethnographic studies and the works of essayists, fiction writers, and scholars from the region.
Examination of social, cultural, and economic conditions in lesser developed countries. Discussion of the various socioeconomic and cultural theories of change and development, and of alternative policies for the world of the future. Considers the possible roles for social scientists in policy formulation and application.
This course presents anthropological studies of health in an international context, attending to ways in which anthropological study can contribute to identification of issues relevant to health and development. It will have a dual focus. First, it will deprivilege western concepts and explore both indigenous and biomedical accounts of health. Topics may include culturally defined syndromes, international medicines and health, and illness and body from an international, ethnographic perspective. Second, the course will explore the culture of international health agencies, e.g., WHO, UNICEF, etc.
Theoretical frameworks for the analysis of political systems and processes. The seminar explores politics as action and systemic process in contemporary, prehistoric, and historical contexts. Students are expected to formulate research questions and discuss current theory in a critical fashion.
This cross-cultural seminar explores the biocultural interactions among food, human biology, and the social, cultural, political, and economic factors that shape food-related behaviors and nutritional status of populations. Topics include the social role of food, food beliefs and ideology, the political economy of malnutrition, development strategies and food security, and methods in nutritional anthropology research. Readings and discussions are research focused and approach issues from a variety of theoretical perspectives.
Examines important issues in communication from a global perspective. In-depth study of international communications systems, international information flow, problems that occur in communicating with members of different cultures or subcultures, and development of theories and strategies for improving international communications at the mass, organizational, and interpersonal levels.
Special Topics/Issues in International/Intercultural Communication examines the current and the alternative perspectives in the field of study. Topics/Issues such as the New World Information and Communication Order, Information/Communication Technologies, Communication and Development, Transborder Data Flows, etc., are studied.
This course deals with the theoretical underpinning of the major economic systems in existence today. The classical model of competitive market capitalism is reviewed first, followed by the Marxian and neo-Marxian (Leninist) critique of capitalism. Next, the contemporary Keynesian and the neo-Keynesian models are analyzed. This course concludes with a review of the Lange model of decentralized (market) socialism.
This is advanced economic course in international trade. The first part of the course covers the basics of why countries trade, what explains the pattern of trade that we observe and what are the effects of trade on welfare and the distribution of income. The second part of the course covers issues concerning trade policy and looks at the positive and normative effects of trade policy and trade agreements as well as investigating topics of current interest. While the focus of the course is on theory, students will also be exposed to many applications of the theory as a means of both explaining the economic intuition and encouraging students to analyze the world around them from an economic perspective.
A comparative study of economic progress in selected countries. This course will cover growth patterns, theories of development and capital formation, interaction of social and economic change.
This course is an introduction to Africa focusing on economic issues. The course will cover topics including history (slave trades, colonialism, civil wars), politics and democratization, health, migration, foreign aid, corruption, natural resources, and education in the context of Africa and the economic development of African countries.
An introduction to mathematical approaches to economic theory. Emphasis on linear models, constrained optimization, and techniques used in comparative statistics.
This course covers principles and practices of economical resource management in the governmental sector: tax and expenditure types, intergovernmental fiscal cooperation, debt financing, budgeting and financial planning.
An introduction to macroeconomic and microeconomic fundamentals as they are related to international trade and commercial policy.
This course covers maximum likelihood estimation, ordinary least squares regression, heteroscedasticity-consistent regression, fixed and random effects models, probit, logit and tobit models, and identification and two-state least squares estimation of simultaneous equations models.
Analytical consideration of the role of agriculture in economic development in relation to overall development strategy at various stages of growth. Theoretical and policy issues of particular relevance to the agricultural development in underdeveloped agrarian economies with various resource, social, political, and economic systems.
This course is designed to meet the needs of upper division and graduate students who are preparing for the graduate reading examination, who need a reading knowledge of French in their minor, or who require a review of French grammar.
This course examines how space and political activities are related. Major topics will include: history of political geographic thought; geopolitics; nationalism and identity; the territorial state; regionalism; conflicts; borders and frontiers, and electoral geography, at a range of scales.
Seminar in selected topics in the policies, practices, and processes of development, including, for example, political economy perspectives on development; anti-development and postcolonial theory; economic restructuring and transition economies; gender and development; the relations between development and migration, transportation and tourism; environmental management and sustainable development.
A seminar in economic geography, including, for example, global, regional, and local economic restructuring, global financial systems; foreign direct investment and trade; geography of multinational corporations; geography of labor; spaces of production and spaces of consumption; gender and economic space; space-time convergence; information and communications.
A seminar in political geography, including, for example, electoral systems; state theory; post-Cold War democratization; the geography of revolutionary change; critical geopolitics; political economy of environmental movements; political economy of globalization discourses and practices.
This course is designed to meet the needs of upper division and graduate students who are preparing for the graduate reading examination, who need a reading knowledge of German in their minor, or who require a review of German grammar.
Seminar exploring the cataclysmic changes that took place in Russia from the revolutions in 1905 and 1917 through the collapse of the Soviet Union.
The course of French history since 1815, including the development of French political, administrative, legal, social, economic and cultural achievements and institutions and their contribution to the modern world.
This course examines the political, social, and cultural history of Germany during the century when it arose from utter defeat by Napoleon to become the strongest economic and military power in Europe, then concludes with Germany's fate in World War I.
This course examines the history of Germany from the end of World War I until the present, including the Weimar Republic, the Third Reich, the occupation regimes after World War II, East and West Germany from 1949 to 1990, and the reunified Germany since 1990. The main focus of coverage will be on political and social history, with lesser emphasis on cultural, diplomatic, and military history.
Emphasis is on the politics of Middle Eastern nationalism, Pan-Arabism and its demise, the Arab-Israeli conflict, the politics of oil and nuclear weapons, the Islamic revolution in Iran, and the development of the Islamic movement since 1967.
Selected topics on the history of the Middle East and its politics. The specific topics for a given semester will be listed in the class schedule book and the department's website.
This course focuses on the foreign policies of Turkey, Iran, Israel, and the major Arab countries: Egypt, Iraq, Syria, and Saudi Arabia. It will also examine the foreign policies of the smaller Arab countries such as Lebanon, Yemen, and the UAE. The emphasis is on the major trends of the foreign policies of these countries since WWII.
A detailed study of Britain in the 20th century with special consideration of Britain in World War I and World War II, and her position in the contemporary world.
Following a brief survey of Mexican political history from Independence to the present, this course will examine topically major historical themes, such as landholding and agrarian problems, church and state, and assessment of the 1910 Revolution.
Study of Brazilian history from 1500 to the present, stressing the multiethnic dynamics of colonial society, the political transformations of independence, and the contemporary legacies of race, slavery, abolition, and gender.
A survey designed to acquaint the student with the principles of American foreign policy and its historical evolution.
A continuation of HIS 574. Foreign policy after the United States became a world power.
A study of the revolutionary political, economic, and social changes occurring in China, Japan, and Korea in the aftermath of World War II. Important political and institutional developments and their relations to pre-war trends will be emphasized.
This course will look at institutions that comprise the international human rights system, such as the United Nations and the International Criminal Court, as well as conceptual debates that bear on international human rights, such as the relative standing of economic, cultural, and social rights versus civil and political rights; whether rights are universal or culturally defined; whether rights or duties are the appropriate mechanism for advancing human interests; and whether international, regional, or national approaches to human rights are preferable.
This course will allow for the study of the law relating to international environmental degradation. After a brief introduction to the problem of ensuring international environmental quality and the sources and forms of international environmental law, the course will examine a number of issues of international pollution control. In this part of the course, we will study international responses to the problems of global warming, ozone depletion, and transboundary pollution. We will also consider issues of international resource management, such as those related to conservation of endangered species and preservation of biodiversity. We should also have sufficient time to consider the relation between international trade and environmental protection.
This is a survey course on the legal regime of the World Trade Organization (WTO), which stands at the center of the current international debate about globalization and has triggered protests from Seattle to Doha. The course will examine, among other things, the legal structure of the WTO, dispute settlement, most favored nation and national treatment principles, trade in services, trade-related aspects of intellectual property rights, and linkages/conflicts between trade regulation and environmental protection, labor standards, and other important areas of domestic policy. In addition, depending upon the class's interests, we will focus on one or two hot topics in international trade law chosen from such areas as the threat of globalization – myth or reality; the North-South divide over trade in agricultural products; national restrictions on importation of genetically modified organisms; the availability of patented pharmaceuticals in least developed countries; and cultural limits on trade in audiovisual products such as films, videos, and television programming.
Introduction to the legal process by which interests are adjusted and decisions reached on the international scene. Treaties, the law of international organizations, the "common law" of nations and national laws with significant international ramifications are examined to determine their effect on international cooperation and coercion.
This course provides a comparison of management concepts and practices in different countries and the role of management in economic development; an interdisciplinary approach emphasizing the impact of sociological-cultural factors, legal-political factors and education on management development.
This course examines the problems of managing a business enterprise which spans international boundaries. Students will develop an understanding of the political, social, economic, and technological factors driving globalization and will consider the impact of these forces on competition, markets, industry structure, and organization.
This course is meant to provide an opportunity for advanced undergraduates and graduate students to (1) understand the historical, socioeconomic, and philosophical context of the communist party states in Eastern Europe, (2) to learn who governs in Eastern Europe and the structures through which they rule, (3) to assess the "dynamics" of communist politics, i.e., factors contributing to political change vis-à-vis political continuity.
Study of contemporary Latin American political institutions and of the dynamics of the Latin American political process.
Analysis of political development in the Soviet Union with emphasis on party-government relations, Communist ideology, and major approaches to the study of Soviet politics.
The formulation of American foreign policy from several analytic perspectives, with somewhat more emphasis on inputs and process than on substantive outputs.
Examines contending theoretical approaches to global political economy, such as the international monetary system, multinational corporations, foreign aid, and trade.
An examination of the politics of the development of international law and its operation in a multicultural world. Legal principles and international political processes are discussed through illustrative issue areas: management of conflict; distribution of territorial resources; environmental problems and human rights.
This course will focus on selected advanced topics in international relations drawn from various areas of that field of political science, taught by faculty members with special interests and competence. Past topics have been Globalization and Conflict.
An exploration of different models of political behavior, based on concepts of psychoanalysis, behaviorism, humanism, and social psychology.
The ways the modern mass media affect the dynamics of politics in the United States are examined in this course. Specific topics include the impact of television on political discourse; the structure and ownership of mass media; how new is made and how it influences our political attitudes and behaviors; the role of the media in campaigns, elections and policy making.
An examination of (1) national development strategies as determinants of Latin American foreign policies, (2) the origins and political consequences of economic nationalism, (3) historical patterns of U.S. response to reformist and/or revolutionary change, (4) the role of extra-continental contenders for influence in the Americas, and (5) at least one contemporary foreign policy issue in inter-American relations.
A study of the evolution and development of comparative government and politics within the discipline with particular emphasis upon the formulation, application, and limitations of the theories, taxonomies, and conceptual frameworks employed in comparative research.
A survey of the major theoretical approaches to the study of international systems and processes.
Topic and instructor will vary from semester to semester. Faculty member presents seminar on topic in which he has particular research competence or special expertise. May be repeated under different subtitle to a maximum of nine hours. Sample topics: International Human Rights; Middle East Politics.
This seminar will emphasize comparative analysis of foreign policy. It will compare the foreign policies of a number of countries in order to develop propositions and arrive at generalizations regarding foreign policy process and behavior. The comparative focus will vary.
Examination of the contending theoretical perspectives and substantive functional issues underlying the politics of international economic relations, with special attention given to international trade and money, the politics of North-South relations, and comparative foreign economic policies.
Discussion of the impact of the global spread of democracy on foreign policy and war.
Analysis of approaches to the study of international, transnational and regional political and economic organizations and processes within the context of world politics. An examination of the impact of these activities and processes on contemporary problems of world order.
Case studies are used to examine ethical dilemmas and advance ethical decision making. The philosophical foundations of ethical decision making are covered.
This course is designed to provide students with the conceptual and analytical tools to evaluate the effectiveness of public programs and policies. The focus will be on program monitoring and evaluation. Of particular concern will be program process and outcome measurement; quasi-experimental design; multiple regression analysis; and analysis of variance models.
Broad-based course in public policy formulation and social planning. Emphasis is on the parameters of policy formulation as well as the social planning and impact variables. Both policy processes and relevant content areas will be stressed.
Broad-based course examining essential factors in the financial management of NGOs.
This class provides students with an understanding of the political systems of and the implementation of policy in nations around the world. We begin by comparing the political system and the bureaucracies of the US and Canada, which will serve as the backdrop for learning relevant concepts from modern political science and public administration. Having mastered these concepts, we will then use them to examine Mexico, Brazil, China, India, Japan, Nigeria, Russia, the United Kingdom, Germany, and finally, the European Union as an entity. In all cases, our country studies will focus on who decides on policies and how, then on how policies are implemented. In selected class sessions, the instructor will provide practice information on work in, and with professionals from the countries featured in this class.
The class consists of two parts. First, I provide students with a background of the political systems of some of the major North American, European, and Asian trading partners of the United States. We will compare them with the US, focusing on who decides on policies and how, and then on how policies are implemented. The second part covers what are perhaps the four most significant policy challenges affecting these countries: (i) demographic change and migration; (ii) economic change (the politics of trade, debt, and restructuring); (iii) environmental change (ozone depletion and climate change); and (iv) security.
This course examines policy issues in an international context with an emphasis on economic analysis. Topics include international trade and trade policy, income distribution, labor markets, unemployment, migration, and related human resource issues and policies, taxation, social welfare expenditures including public pension funding with aging populations, debt policies, and international capital flows and tax competition, and the policy and political economy implications of international economic integration. Depending on student interest and time constraints, the course may cover selected other policy topics in areas such as environmental policy or finance.
An introduction to the theory and practices of assessing, correcting, controlling, and preventing environmental health hazards that may adversely affect the health of current and future generations.
This course will introduce students to issues of public health and population health status. Principles of disease prevention and the focus on population health will be explored. The behavior of population is a major variable in health outcomes. Behavior models resulting in positive health will be introduced.
Principles of epidemiology and applications in preventive medicine and environmental health. Presents methods of epidemiologic research with a focus on issues of study design and analysis.
Explores theory and concepts of infectious disease epidemiology, such as epidemic modeling expostulated through a systematic study of the more recent emerging diseases.
Seminar addresses current topics of special interest or concern.
Seminar focused on the national and international challenges posed by acts of terrorism and natural disasters from a public health perspective.
Provides opportunity for students to participate in an internship centered on a health related activity in a foreign country.
Exposes students to major issues and challenges for public health in wealthy, emerging and impoverished nations.
Designed for those graduate students who wish to acquire a rapid reading knowledge of Spanish. Emphasis on rapid vocabulary building, the Spanish idiom, and the verb systems.
Primarily in behavioral and social sciences. Introduction to methods of analyzing data from experiments and surveys; the role of statistics in research, statistical concepts, and models; probability and distribution functions; estimation; hypothesis testing; regression and correlation; analysis of single and multiple classification models; analysis of categorical data.