The alluvium forms terraces and floodplains along the Green and Barren
Rivers and tributaries.
The alluvium may yield as much as 100 gallons per minute from sands
and gravel along the Green River. Most wells in thin alluvium furnish
less than 100 gallons per day, inadequate for a domestic supply. Coarse
sand and gravel may occur in the alluvium where rocks of Pennsylvanian
age are close to streams. Water is hard.
Caseyville Formation (Pca)
The Caseyville underlies rolling uplands. It forms dissected uplands
and ridgetops near the Green River in northern Warren County.
Yields of 60 gallons per minute have been obtained from thick sandstone beds in
the Caseyville. The
formation will yield enough water for a modern domestic supply to most
sandstone. At depth, the water becomes salty or may have a high sodium
Electric logs indicate that moderately mineralized water may be obtained
locally from this
formation at depths of 1,200 feet.
Buffalo Wallow Formation, Leitchfield Formation, Tar Springs Sandstone
These formations underlie gently rolling uplands and fairly steep slopes
adjacent to stream
valleys. Sandstone lenses, some massive, form small benches.
These formations yield little or no water.
Glen Dean Limestone, Hardinsburg Sandstone (Mcl)
These rocks underlie gently rolling to level uplands, dissected along
the perimeter of the Dripping Springs Escarpment. Limestone forms steep
slopes above benches of the underlying sandstone. Sandstone forms small
discontinuous benches on hillsides.
Most wells in upland areas are inadequate for domestic supply, yielding
little or no water.
Golconda Formation (Haney Limestone, Big Clifty Sandstone, Beech
Limestone in the Golconda underlies gently rolling to flat uplands.
The Golconda forms bluffs
near heads of valleys. The Big Clifty sandstone caps the Dripping Springs
hundred feet high, and underlies gently rolling uplands.
Deep wells that penetrate the sandstone formations near perennial stream
level may produce enough for a domestic supply (more than 500 gallons
per day). Close to outcrop areas, particularly near major escarpments,
yields from perched water bodies generally are low and not dependable.
Minor spring horizons occur on discontinuous layers of shale near the
base of the sandstones. The most conspicuous springs are those that
discharge from the base of the Big Clifty sandstone. These are the dripping
springs of the Dripping Springs Escarpment. Many of these springs
go dry during the late fall and summer, and very few are adequate for
a domestic supply. Limestone formations yield small to adequate supplies
from solution openings. In lowland areas bordering streams, some wells
produce enough for a domestic supply. Many springs occur at the base
of the limestones where they crop out on escarpments and hillsides.
Girkin Formation (Reelsville Limestone, Sample Sandstone, Beaver
Bend and Paoli Limestones) (Mcl)
The Girkin forms the lower part of the Dripping Springs Escarpment.
The lower part of the Girkin underlies rolling karst areas near the
base of the escarpment. The Girkin contains numerous large sinks into
which the overlying sandstone has collapsed.
Most wells in upland areas are inadequate for domestic use; however,
some wells yield enough water for a domestic supply (more than 500 gallons
per day) from solution openings. Some wells produce more than 5 gallons
per minute from large solution openings. Near outcrop areas, particularly
near major escarpments, yields generally are inadequate during dry periods.
Ste. Genevieve Limestone (Mgl)
The Ste. Genevieve underlies rolling karst areas. It forms steep bluffs
near the Green River.
The Ste. Genevieve yields more than 50 gallons per minute to wells from
large solution openings in karst areas. Most wells penetrate solution
openings, but in areas high above perennial streams these solution openings
are dry in late summer and fall, and many wells are inadequate. Wells
that do not intersect karst conduits generally are inadequate for domestic
use. Springs having low flows ranging from less than 10 gallons per
minute to more than 1,500 gallons per minute occur at or near stream
level or near the contact with the underlying St. Louis Limestone. Smaller
springs discharge from perched water bodies in upland areas, but many
go dry during late summer and fall.
St. Louis Limestone (Mgl)
The St. Louis underlies rolling karst areas. It commonly has less relief
than karst in areas
underlain by the Ste. Genevieve Limestone, but sinkholes are steeper.
It forms steep bluffs
along the Barren River.
The St. Louis yields more than 50 gallons per minute to wells from large
openings in karst areas. Most wells penetrate some solution openings,
but in high areas above perennial streams yields are often inadequate
for domestic supply. Yields of wells close to major streams are large
where solution openings are penetrated, but otherwise are inadequate.
A major spring horizon has many springs flowing several hundred to several
thousand gallons a minute. Many springs are used for public and industrial
Warsaw Limestone (Msh)
The Warsaw underlies gently rolling uplands.
Wells that penetrate large solution openings may produce more than 5
gallons per minute.
The U.S. Geological Survey's Hydrologic
Atlas Series, published cooperatively with the Kentucky Geological
Survey, provides hydrologic information for the entire state.
to "Groundwater Resources in Kentucky"